Abstract

A general exposition of the scientific potentialities and analytic framework of space photography is presented using the photography of Mars from flybys and orbiters as the principal example. Space photography is treated here as a communication process in which planetary scene information is communicated to the eye–brain receiver of earth-based interpreters. The salient parameters of this process are: (1) total information returned, (2) surface resolution, and (3) a priori knowledge regarding the planetary surface observed.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Smith, Appl. Opt. 2, 335 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. C. Brock, in Photographic Considerations for Aerospace (Itek Corporation, Lexington, Mass., 1965), Chap. 3, pp. 42–72.
  3. R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, J. D. Allen, R. K. Sloan, JPL Tech. Rept. 32–884, 15December1967.
  4. B. L. Elle, C. S. Hernmiller, P. J. Fromme, A. E. Neumer, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 76, 733 (1967).
  5. R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).
  6. R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. C. Brock, in Useful Applications of Earth-Oriented Satellites (Natl. Acad. Sciences, Wash. D. C., 1969), 6, p. 63.
  8. B. C. Murray, Astron. Aeron. 6, No. 10, 42 (1968).
  9. B. C. Murray, Advan. Astron. Sci. 19, 153 (1966).

1969

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

B. C. Murray, Astron. Aeron. 6, No. 10, 42 (1968).

1967

B. L. Elle, C. S. Hernmiller, P. J. Fromme, A. E. Neumer, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 76, 733 (1967).

1966

B. C. Murray, Advan. Astron. Sci. 19, 153 (1966).

1963

Allen, J. D.

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, J. D. Allen, R. K. Sloan, JPL Tech. Rept. 32–884, 15December1967.

Brock, G. C.

G. C. Brock, in Photographic Considerations for Aerospace (Itek Corporation, Lexington, Mass., 1965), Chap. 3, pp. 42–72.

G. C. Brock, in Useful Applications of Earth-Oriented Satellites (Natl. Acad. Sciences, Wash. D. C., 1969), 6, p. 63.

Davies, M. E.

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

Elle, B. L.

B. L. Elle, C. S. Hernmiller, P. J. Fromme, A. E. Neumer, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 76, 733 (1967).

Fromme, P. J.

B. L. Elle, C. S. Hernmiller, P. J. Fromme, A. E. Neumer, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 76, 733 (1967).

Hernmiller, C. S.

B. L. Elle, C. S. Hernmiller, P. J. Fromme, A. E. Neumer, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 76, 733 (1967).

Herriman, A. G.

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowitz, N. H.

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

Leighton, R. B.

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, J. D. Allen, R. K. Sloan, JPL Tech. Rept. 32–884, 15December1967.

Leovy, C. B.

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, B. C.

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

B. C. Murray, Astron. Aeron. 6, No. 10, 42 (1968).

B. C. Murray, Advan. Astron. Sci. 19, 153 (1966).

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, J. D. Allen, R. K. Sloan, JPL Tech. Rept. 32–884, 15December1967.

Neumer, A. E.

B. L. Elle, C. S. Hernmiller, P. J. Fromme, A. E. Neumer, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 76, 733 (1967).

Sharp, R. P.

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, J. D. Allen, R. K. Sloan, JPL Tech. Rept. 32–884, 15December1967.

Sloan, R. K.

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, J. D. Allen, R. K. Sloan, JPL Tech. Rept. 32–884, 15December1967.

Smith, B. A.

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D.

Young, A. T.

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Advan. Astron. Sci.

B. C. Murray, Advan. Astron. Sci. 19, 153 (1966).

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Aeron.

B. C. Murray, Astron. Aeron. 6, No. 10, 42 (1968).

J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs.

B. L. Elle, C. S. Hernmiller, P. J. Fromme, A. E. Neumer, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 76, 733 (1967).

Science

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 684 (1969).

R. B. Leighton, N. H. Horowitz, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, A. G. Herriman, A. T. Young, B. A. Smith, M. E. Davies, C. B. Leovy, Science 165, 787 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. C. Brock, in Useful Applications of Earth-Oriented Satellites (Natl. Acad. Sciences, Wash. D. C., 1969), 6, p. 63.

G. C. Brock, in Photographic Considerations for Aerospace (Itek Corporation, Lexington, Mass., 1965), Chap. 3, pp. 42–72.

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, R. P. Sharp, J. D. Allen, R. K. Sloan, JPL Tech. Rept. 32–884, 15December1967.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photographic exploration of Mars. The accumulation of photographic data (in bits) is shown as a function of time as is the sharply decreasing cost/bit. Data from Table I.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modulation transfer curves. The MTF curves for the vidicon camera systems of the Mariner missions to Mars in 19653 and in 1969 (unpublished preliminary data) are compared with that of the Lunar Orbiter film/readout camera system4 flown in 1966. Horizontal and vertical MTF’s have been averaged for the vidicon systems.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Processing of Mariner 4 television picture. Upper left: raw data of frame 10 from Mariner 4 as received in July 1965. Upper right: same data, after several days of processing with preliminary enhancement and with torn lines corrected and fiducial marks and spurious interference removed by interpolation. Lower right: finally calibrated and enhanced photograph with most electrical noise removed. Lower left: same, except processed with high space frequency filter. The last two steps were not completed until more than a year after receipt of data. Details of processing are found in Ref. 3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Processing of Mariner 6 television picture. Upper left: raw analog data of near encounter frame 18 from Mariner 6 as received in August 1969, including on-board enhancement effects. Upper right: electrical noise to be removed from raw data. Lower left: raw data with noise removed and then enhanced, but without correction for vidicon response. Lower right: same, except processed with high frequency filter. All these processing steps were carried out within a few days of receipt of data. Further information can be found in Refs. 5 and 6.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Photographie Exploration of Mars

Tables Icon

Table II Mariner Mars Television Cameras

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of Mariner Mars 1971 and Lunar Orbitera Camera Systems

Equations (28)

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δ i = f ( i , a )
V N = ρ × δ i × a ,
n p = K 2 A B .
2 n b = 1 + ( i / δ i ) ,
n m n = 3 log 10 [ 1 + ( i / δ i ) ] .
n T = n p n m n = 3 K 2 A B log 10 [ 1 + ( i / δ i ) ] .
i ( x ) = 1 ( x x ) o ( x ) d x .
T ( ω ) = 1 ( x x ) cos ω x d x .
1 ( ω ) = T ( ω ) 0 ( ω )
i ( x ) = T ( ω ) 0 ( ω ) cos ω x d ω ,
T ( ω ) = M ( ω ) / M ( ω ) ,
1 ( ω ) = T 0 ( ω ) T s ( ω ) 0 ( ω ) .
0 ( ω ) = 1 ( ω ) / T 0 ( ω ) T s ( ω )
o ( ω ) = 0 ( ω ) cos ω x d ω .
V S / V N R = q .
V S R = ( i max i min ) Z ( R ρ ) = ( i max + i min ) i max i min i max + i min Z ( R ρ ) .
V S R = 2 i [ ( c 1 ) / ( c + 1 ) ] Z ( R ρ )
V N R = δ i Z ( R ρ ) .
i / δ i R = ( q / 2 ) [ ( c + 1 ) / ( c 1 ) ] .
i / δ i = ( MTF ) ( K 0 / K MTF ) ( S / N ) F + 1 ,
i / δ i = 0.2 ( K 0 / K 0.2 ) ( S / N ) F + 1
FOM TV = ( 3 Y f 2 K 0.2 2 / H 2 ) log 10 [ 1 + ( 0.2 K 0 / K 0.2 ) ( S / N ) F ] ,
FOM film = ( 12 R 2 Y f 2 / H 2 ) log 10 { 1 + [ q ( c + 1 ) / 2 ( c 1 ) ] } .
FOM GB = ( 12 Y / S 2 ) log 10 { 1 + [ q ( c + 1 ) / 2 ( c 1 ) ] } .
FOM LO FOM M 71 = 4 R LO 2 f LO 2 log 10 { 1 + [ q ( c + 1 ) / ( c 1 ) ] } K 0.2 2 f M 71 2 log 10 [ 1 + ( 0.2 K 0 / K 0.2 ) ( S / N ) F ]
FOM LO FOM M 71 = 4 ( 76 ) 2 ( 610 ) 2 log 10 ( 1 + 1.5 ) ( 30 ) 2 ( 508 ) 2 log 10 [ 1 + ( 74 / 30 ) ( 75 / 5 ) ] = 9.2.
3 Y f 2 K 2 H 2 log 10 [ 1 + 0.2 K 0 K 0.2 ( S N ) F ] = 12 Y S 2 log 10 [ 1 + q ( c + 1 ) 2 ( c 1 ) ]
H 2 = S 2 f 2 K 0.2 2 4 log 10 [ 1 + ( 0.2 K 0 / K 0.2 ) ( S / N ) F ] log 10 { 1 + [ q ( c + 1 ) / 2 ( c 1 ) ] } .

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