Abstract

This paper presents experimental ir horizon profiles of the earth seen from outside the atmosphere. Measurements were made from a capsule which reached 175 km. The attitude was controlled during the whole flight by means of a gyroscopic device. Seven spectral channels were studied, especially: ozone (9.6 μ), CO2 (14–16 μ), the range of atmospheric window (11 μ), and a broad channel (1–50 μ) that was the only one of the first experiment in 1965. The spatial limit of resolution is 0.16°, and the attitude in space of the capsule has been reconstructed with an accuracy equal to 0.05° due to a star mapper. Results are expressed as variations of radiance with respect to tangential height for the different spectral channels.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Y. Kondratiev, K. E. Ya. Kuchevskaya, in the First International Symposium on Rocket and Satellite Meteorology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 254–277.
  2. D. Q. Wark, J. Alishouse, G. Yamamoto, Appl. Opt. 3, 221 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. Kirk, B. F. Watson, E. M. Brooks, R. O’B. Carpenter, J. C. Gille, “Infrared horizon definition.—A State of the Art report,” NASA CR-722, 1967.
  4. J. C. Bates, Infrared Phys. 7, 181 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Hanel, W. R. Bandeen, B. J. Conrath, J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 73 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Burn, W. G. Uplinger, P. P. Morris, LMSC-677318 (Contract AF 04(695)-1031, Subcontract 325), Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., 10March1967.
  7. J. W. Woestman, Infrared Phys. 3, 93 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Burn, “Infrared horizon for model atmospheres of the earth,” Proceedings of the First Symposium on Infrared Sensors for Spacecraft Guidance and Control, Barnes Eng. Co., pp. 3–14, 1965.
  9. V. N. Branets, Recherches cosmiques 3, 568 (1965).
  10. T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, R. E. Davis, “Infrared horizon profiles for summer conditions from project scanner,” NASA TN D4761, 1968.
  11. R. G. Walker, C. V. Cuniff, A. P. d’Agati, “Measurement of the infrared horizon of the earth,” AFCRL 66-631, U.S. Air Force, Sept.1966.
  12. G. Ogletree, “Profile—An orbital program of limb measurement,” R. 597 Instrum. Lab. Mass. Inst. Tech., March1967.
  13. A. Girard, Analyse expérimentale du contraste infrarouge entre la terre et l’espace—Space Research VII (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1967).
  14. P. A. Bajouline, A. V. Kartachev, M. N. Markov, Kosm. issled. 4, 601 (1966).
  15. J. R. Thomas, E. E. Jones, R. O’B. Carpenter, G. Ohring, “The analysis of 15 μinfrared horizon radiance profile variations over a range of meteorological, geographical and seasonal conditions,” NASA CR-725April1967.
  16. M. Bismut, A. Remondiere “Contrôle d’attitude d’une sonde spatiale à mission proche, Proceedings XVI° Congrès International Astronautique, Athènes, 12–18 Sept. 1965.
  17. M. N. Markov, “Rayonnement infrarouge de la haute atmosphère et sa structure,” Communication à la session de la Section de la Physique Générale et Appliquée de l’Académie des Sciences de l’URSS, le 27.4.1967.
  18. J. Laurent, Cryostat embarquable à néon solide, La Recherche Aérospatiale n° 127, Nov.–Déc. 1968.
  19. H. E. Le Boiteux, Détecteur àsensibilité élevée et de grande étendue dans le spectre infrarougeAGARDograph 71, 1963.

1967 (1)

J. C. Bates, Infrared Phys. 7, 181 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

P. A. Bajouline, A. V. Kartachev, M. N. Markov, Kosm. issled. 4, 601 (1966).

1965 (1)

V. N. Branets, Recherches cosmiques 3, 568 (1965).

1964 (1)

1963 (2)

R. A. Hanel, W. R. Bandeen, B. J. Conrath, J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 73 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Woestman, Infrared Phys. 3, 93 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Alishouse, J.

Bajouline, P. A.

P. A. Bajouline, A. V. Kartachev, M. N. Markov, Kosm. issled. 4, 601 (1966).

Bandeen, W. R.

R. A. Hanel, W. R. Bandeen, B. J. Conrath, J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 73 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bates, J. C.

J. C. Bates, Infrared Phys. 7, 181 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bismut, M.

M. Bismut, A. Remondiere “Contrôle d’attitude d’une sonde spatiale à mission proche, Proceedings XVI° Congrès International Astronautique, Athènes, 12–18 Sept. 1965.

Branets, V. N.

V. N. Branets, Recherches cosmiques 3, 568 (1965).

Brooks, E. M.

R. J. Kirk, B. F. Watson, E. M. Brooks, R. O’B. Carpenter, J. C. Gille, “Infrared horizon definition.—A State of the Art report,” NASA CR-722, 1967.

Burn, J. W.

J. W. Burn, “Infrared horizon for model atmospheres of the earth,” Proceedings of the First Symposium on Infrared Sensors for Spacecraft Guidance and Control, Barnes Eng. Co., pp. 3–14, 1965.

J. W. Burn, W. G. Uplinger, P. P. Morris, LMSC-677318 (Contract AF 04(695)-1031, Subcontract 325), Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., 10March1967.

Carpenter, R. O’B.

J. R. Thomas, E. E. Jones, R. O’B. Carpenter, G. Ohring, “The analysis of 15 μinfrared horizon radiance profile variations over a range of meteorological, geographical and seasonal conditions,” NASA CR-725April1967.

R. J. Kirk, B. F. Watson, E. M. Brooks, R. O’B. Carpenter, J. C. Gille, “Infrared horizon definition.—A State of the Art report,” NASA CR-722, 1967.

Conrath, B. J.

R. A. Hanel, W. R. Bandeen, B. J. Conrath, J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 73 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Cuniff, C. V.

R. G. Walker, C. V. Cuniff, A. P. d’Agati, “Measurement of the infrared horizon of the earth,” AFCRL 66-631, U.S. Air Force, Sept.1966.

d’Agati, A. P.

R. G. Walker, C. V. Cuniff, A. P. d’Agati, “Measurement of the infrared horizon of the earth,” AFCRL 66-631, U.S. Air Force, Sept.1966.

Davis, R. E.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, R. E. Davis, “Infrared horizon profiles for summer conditions from project scanner,” NASA TN D4761, 1968.

Gille, J. C.

R. J. Kirk, B. F. Watson, E. M. Brooks, R. O’B. Carpenter, J. C. Gille, “Infrared horizon definition.—A State of the Art report,” NASA CR-722, 1967.

Girard, A.

A. Girard, Analyse expérimentale du contraste infrarouge entre la terre et l’espace—Space Research VII (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1967).

Hanel, R. A.

R. A. Hanel, W. R. Bandeen, B. J. Conrath, J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 73 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Jones, E. E.

J. R. Thomas, E. E. Jones, R. O’B. Carpenter, G. Ohring, “The analysis of 15 μinfrared horizon radiance profile variations over a range of meteorological, geographical and seasonal conditions,” NASA CR-725April1967.

Kartachev, A. V.

P. A. Bajouline, A. V. Kartachev, M. N. Markov, Kosm. issled. 4, 601 (1966).

Kirk, R. J.

R. J. Kirk, B. F. Watson, E. M. Brooks, R. O’B. Carpenter, J. C. Gille, “Infrared horizon definition.—A State of the Art report,” NASA CR-722, 1967.

Kondratiev, K. Y.

K. Y. Kondratiev, K. E. Ya. Kuchevskaya, in the First International Symposium on Rocket and Satellite Meteorology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 254–277.

Kuchevskaya, K. E. Ya.

K. Y. Kondratiev, K. E. Ya. Kuchevskaya, in the First International Symposium on Rocket and Satellite Meteorology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 254–277.

Laurent, J.

J. Laurent, Cryostat embarquable à néon solide, La Recherche Aérospatiale n° 127, Nov.–Déc. 1968.

Le Boiteux, H. E.

H. E. Le Boiteux, Détecteur àsensibilité élevée et de grande étendue dans le spectre infrarougeAGARDograph 71, 1963.

Markov, M. N.

P. A. Bajouline, A. V. Kartachev, M. N. Markov, Kosm. issled. 4, 601 (1966).

M. N. Markov, “Rayonnement infrarouge de la haute atmosphère et sa structure,” Communication à la session de la Section de la Physique Générale et Appliquée de l’Académie des Sciences de l’URSS, le 27.4.1967.

McKee, T. B.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, R. E. Davis, “Infrared horizon profiles for summer conditions from project scanner,” NASA TN D4761, 1968.

Morris, P. P.

J. W. Burn, W. G. Uplinger, P. P. Morris, LMSC-677318 (Contract AF 04(695)-1031, Subcontract 325), Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., 10March1967.

Ogletree, G.

G. Ogletree, “Profile—An orbital program of limb measurement,” R. 597 Instrum. Lab. Mass. Inst. Tech., March1967.

Ohring, G.

J. R. Thomas, E. E. Jones, R. O’B. Carpenter, G. Ohring, “The analysis of 15 μinfrared horizon radiance profile variations over a range of meteorological, geographical and seasonal conditions,” NASA CR-725April1967.

Remondiere, A.

M. Bismut, A. Remondiere “Contrôle d’attitude d’une sonde spatiale à mission proche, Proceedings XVI° Congrès International Astronautique, Athènes, 12–18 Sept. 1965.

Thomas, J. R.

J. R. Thomas, E. E. Jones, R. O’B. Carpenter, G. Ohring, “The analysis of 15 μinfrared horizon radiance profile variations over a range of meteorological, geographical and seasonal conditions,” NASA CR-725April1967.

Uplinger, W. G.

J. W. Burn, W. G. Uplinger, P. P. Morris, LMSC-677318 (Contract AF 04(695)-1031, Subcontract 325), Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., 10March1967.

Walker, R. G.

R. G. Walker, C. V. Cuniff, A. P. d’Agati, “Measurement of the infrared horizon of the earth,” AFCRL 66-631, U.S. Air Force, Sept.1966.

Wark, D. Q.

Watson, B. F.

R. J. Kirk, B. F. Watson, E. M. Brooks, R. O’B. Carpenter, J. C. Gille, “Infrared horizon definition.—A State of the Art report,” NASA CR-722, 1967.

Whitman, R. I.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, R. E. Davis, “Infrared horizon profiles for summer conditions from project scanner,” NASA TN D4761, 1968.

Woestman, J. W.

J. W. Woestman, Infrared Phys. 3, 93 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Infrared Phys. (2)

J. C. Bates, Infrared Phys. 7, 181 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Woestman, Infrared Phys. 3, 93 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

R. A. Hanel, W. R. Bandeen, B. J. Conrath, J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 73 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kosm. issled. (1)

P. A. Bajouline, A. V. Kartachev, M. N. Markov, Kosm. issled. 4, 601 (1966).

Recherches cosmiques (1)

V. N. Branets, Recherches cosmiques 3, 568 (1965).

Other (13)

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, R. E. Davis, “Infrared horizon profiles for summer conditions from project scanner,” NASA TN D4761, 1968.

R. G. Walker, C. V. Cuniff, A. P. d’Agati, “Measurement of the infrared horizon of the earth,” AFCRL 66-631, U.S. Air Force, Sept.1966.

G. Ogletree, “Profile—An orbital program of limb measurement,” R. 597 Instrum. Lab. Mass. Inst. Tech., March1967.

A. Girard, Analyse expérimentale du contraste infrarouge entre la terre et l’espace—Space Research VII (North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1967).

J. W. Burn, W. G. Uplinger, P. P. Morris, LMSC-677318 (Contract AF 04(695)-1031, Subcontract 325), Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., 10March1967.

R. J. Kirk, B. F. Watson, E. M. Brooks, R. O’B. Carpenter, J. C. Gille, “Infrared horizon definition.—A State of the Art report,” NASA CR-722, 1967.

J. R. Thomas, E. E. Jones, R. O’B. Carpenter, G. Ohring, “The analysis of 15 μinfrared horizon radiance profile variations over a range of meteorological, geographical and seasonal conditions,” NASA CR-725April1967.

M. Bismut, A. Remondiere “Contrôle d’attitude d’une sonde spatiale à mission proche, Proceedings XVI° Congrès International Astronautique, Athènes, 12–18 Sept. 1965.

M. N. Markov, “Rayonnement infrarouge de la haute atmosphère et sa structure,” Communication à la session de la Section de la Physique Générale et Appliquée de l’Académie des Sciences de l’URSS, le 27.4.1967.

J. Laurent, Cryostat embarquable à néon solide, La Recherche Aérospatiale n° 127, Nov.–Déc. 1968.

H. E. Le Boiteux, Détecteur àsensibilité élevée et de grande étendue dans le spectre infrarougeAGARDograph 71, 1963.

J. W. Burn, “Infrared horizon for model atmospheres of the earth,” Proceedings of the First Symposium on Infrared Sensors for Spacecraft Guidance and Control, Barnes Eng. Co., pp. 3–14, 1965.

K. Y. Kondratiev, K. E. Ya. Kuchevskaya, in the First International Symposium on Rocket and Satellite Meteorology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 254–277.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrale des sept canaux de mesure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Système de fentes dans le plan focal image du senseur stellaire.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schéma du bloc optique.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schéma optique d’un télescope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extraits d’enregistrements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Définition de l’altitude de visée, H.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Résultats des calculs d’altitude de visée avant correction d’attitude.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Exemples de profils de transition pour les canaux 1 et 2 et pour différentes zones de l’horizon visées au cours de l’expérience.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Différence des profils relevés sur les canaux 1 et 2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Profils d’horizon obtenus sur le canal 3 (14.2–15.9 μ).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Profils d’horizon obtenus sur le canal 4 (19.5–35 μ).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Profils d’horizon obtenus sur le canal 6 (9.25–9.55 μ)

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Profils d’horizon obtenus sur le canal 7 (10.36–11.72 μ).

Tables (1)

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Table I Liste des domaines spectrux étudiés

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