Abstract

This paper describes studies of the threshold modulation curve for photographic film. The threshold modulation curve is an empirically derived relation showing the need at any spatial frequency for modulation in the aerial image of a tribar for resolution to be achieved. The paper deals with the history, raison d’être, theory, method of measurement, and accuracy and precision of the threshold modulation curve. The statistical aspects of the threshold modulation curve are emphasized, and the influence of factors that cause variations in the curve are examined. Examples are given of current and potential applications of the threshold modulation curve.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. W. H. Selwyn, J. L. Tearle, Proc. Phys. Soc. 58, 33 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. C. Brock et al., Interim Eng. Rept. No. 1, Itek Corp. 9048-1, 14 (1962).
  3. F. Scott, Phot. Sci. Eng. 10, 49 (1966).
  4. F. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 151 (1960).
  5. G. C. Higgins, F. H. Perrin, Photo. Sci. Eng. 2, 66 (1958).
  6. National Bureau of Standards Circular 526, Optical Image Evaluation, U. S. Dept. of Commerce (1954).
  7. T. Suzuki, S. Yonezawa, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 677 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. H. Altman, presentation at SPSE meeting (1967).
  9. MIL-STD-150A.
  10. L. O. Hendeberg, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1114 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. A. Korndorf, I. A. Chernyi, Zh. Nauch. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. 9, 448 (1964).

1966 (1)

F. Scott, Phot. Sci. Eng. 10, 49 (1966).

1964 (1)

V. A. Korndorf, I. A. Chernyi, Zh. Nauch. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. 9, 448 (1964).

1963 (1)

L. O. Hendeberg, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1114 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

G. C. Brock et al., Interim Eng. Rept. No. 1, Itek Corp. 9048-1, 14 (1962).

1960 (1)

F. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 151 (1960).

1958 (1)

G. C. Higgins, F. H. Perrin, Photo. Sci. Eng. 2, 66 (1958).

1956 (1)

T. Suzuki, S. Yonezawa, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 677 (1956).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

E. W. H. Selwyn, J. L. Tearle, Proc. Phys. Soc. 58, 33 (1946).
[Crossref]

Altman, J. H.

J. H. Altman, presentation at SPSE meeting (1967).

Brock, G. C.

G. C. Brock et al., Interim Eng. Rept. No. 1, Itek Corp. 9048-1, 14 (1962).

Chernyi, I. A.

V. A. Korndorf, I. A. Chernyi, Zh. Nauch. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. 9, 448 (1964).

Hendeberg, L. O.

L. O. Hendeberg, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1114 (1963).
[Crossref]

Higgins, G. C.

G. C. Higgins, F. H. Perrin, Photo. Sci. Eng. 2, 66 (1958).

Korndorf, V. A.

V. A. Korndorf, I. A. Chernyi, Zh. Nauch. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. 9, 448 (1964).

Perrin, F.

F. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 151 (1960).

Perrin, F. H.

G. C. Higgins, F. H. Perrin, Photo. Sci. Eng. 2, 66 (1958).

Scott, F.

F. Scott, Phot. Sci. Eng. 10, 49 (1966).

Selwyn, E. W. H.

E. W. H. Selwyn, J. L. Tearle, Proc. Phys. Soc. 58, 33 (1946).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, S. Yonezawa, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 677 (1956).
[Crossref]

Tearle, J. L.

E. W. H. Selwyn, J. L. Tearle, Proc. Phys. Soc. 58, 33 (1946).
[Crossref]

Yonezawa, S.

T. Suzuki, S. Yonezawa, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 677 (1956).
[Crossref]

Interim Eng. Rept. No. 1, Itek Corp. (1)

G. C. Brock et al., Interim Eng. Rept. No. 1, Itek Corp. 9048-1, 14 (1962).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

T. Suzuki, S. Yonezawa, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 677 (1956).
[Crossref]

L. O. Hendeberg, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1114 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. (1)

F. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 151 (1960).

Phot. Sci. Eng. (1)

F. Scott, Phot. Sci. Eng. 10, 49 (1966).

Photo. Sci. Eng. (1)

G. C. Higgins, F. H. Perrin, Photo. Sci. Eng. 2, 66 (1958).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (1)

E. W. H. Selwyn, J. L. Tearle, Proc. Phys. Soc. 58, 33 (1946).
[Crossref]

Zh. Nauch. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. (1)

V. A. Korndorf, I. A. Chernyi, Zh. Nauch. Prikl. Fotogr. Kinematogr. 9, 448 (1964).

Other (3)

J. H. Altman, presentation at SPSE meeting (1967).

MIL-STD-150A.

National Bureau of Standards Circular 526, Optical Image Evaluation, U. S. Dept. of Commerce (1954).

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Figures (24)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual form of the threshold modulation curve.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modulus spectra of tribar patterns: (a) perfect tribar pattern of 100 lines/mm; (b) perfect tribar pattern of 100 lines/mm after imaging by diffraction-limited lens with MTF cutoff at 150 lines/mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representation of tribar patterns in spatial domain: (a) perfect tribar pattern of 100 lines/mm; (b) schematic diagram of a perfect tribar pattern degraded by a lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tribar response and sine wave response curves for an unobstructed, diffraction-limited lens: (a) tribar response curve; (b) sine wave response (MTF).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratio R of tribar response (modulus) to sine wave response (modulus) for a diffraction-limited lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MTF curves and ratio R curves for four sample lenses: (a) MTF curves of four arbitrary lenses: two diffraction-limited and two with imperfect surfaces; (b), (c), and (d) ratio R of tribar to sine wave response for lenses A, D, and various contrast targets.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

TM data as a function of target contrast. (D-19/D-76 process.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic illustration of effect of lens cone angle on film MTF: (a) apparent film spread functions for two lens apertures; (b) apparent film MTF’s for two lens apertures.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Film MTF as a function of lens aperture for seven frequencies.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average of eighteen TM curves for 3404 film made September 1966 to September 1968 plotted for different f numbers.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Contours in image of tribar pattern imaged by diffraction-limited lenses of different f numbers.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Tribar image modulus spectra for two combinations of lens MTF and target modulation that produce identical incident modulation at 75 lines/mm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Tribar image contours of two 140 lines/mm images with the same TM.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Tribar modulus spectra of two images with the same TM.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Demonstration of predicted and measured limiting resolving power for obstructed lenses.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Density profiles of a perfect tribar target and one made using a diffraction-limited lens with 400 lines/mm MTF cutoff.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Log exposure profiles of images of perfect and degraded tribar targets of Fig. 16 formed by diffraction-limited lens with MTF cutoff at 150 lines/mm.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Replicated TM curves to demonstrate independence of TM on asymmetric lens MTF.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Frequency histogram of resolving power readings about the mean level.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Three TM curves derived from replicate readings of TM images for a single measurement (3404 films, D-19/D-76 process).

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Five replicate TM measurements for 3404 film, D-19/D-76 process.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Average of five replicated TM curves with standard deviation of the mean TM (3404 film, D-19/D-76 process).

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Limiting resolving power to be expected from optimum TM and MTF curves (3404 film, D-19/D-76 Process; Kodak 25-mm Cine Ektar Lens at f/8.0).

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Frequency histogram of observations of limiting resolving power normalized to predicted resolving power.

Tables (1)

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Table I Predicted and Observed f Number for Best TM Curve

Equations (1)

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M = 1 4 ( B 1 B 2 B 1 + B 2 + B 3 B 2 B 3 + B 2 + B 3 B 4 B 3 + B 4 + B 5 B 4 B 5 + B 4 ) .

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