Abstract

Experimental techniques used to make large pulsed laser transmission and reflection white light holograms of people are presented. Techniques and operating practices to protect the person to be holographed from skin and eye damage are discussed.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. D. Siebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 326 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. B. Newmann, “Moving Object Holography with Unblurred Images of Normal Brightness,” SPIE Holography Seminar Proceedings, San Francisco, California (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. H. Maiman et al., Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. E. Brooks, L. O. Heflinger, R. B. Wuerker, R. A. Briones, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 92 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. E. Brooks et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 275 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. H. Soffer, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2551 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Martin-Marietta Corporation, Proceedings of the First Conference on Laser Safety, G. W. Flint, Ed. (Martin-Marietta Corp., Orlando, Fla., 1966).
  8. W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).
  9. “A Guide for Uniform Industrial Hygiene Codes and Regulations for Laser Installation,” American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, Ohio (1968).
  10. R. F. Wuerker, “Pulsed Laser Holography,” Tech. Rep. AFAL-TR-68-371, USAF Avionics Lab.
  11. L. D. Siebert, Proc. IEEE 56, 1242 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1968 (1)

L. D. Siebert, Proc. IEEE 56, 1242 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

L. D. Siebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 326 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

R. E. Brooks et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 275 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

R. E. Brooks, L. O. Heflinger, R. B. Wuerker, R. A. Briones, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 92 (1965).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).

1964 (1)

B. H. Soffer, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2551 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

T. H. Maiman et al., Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Briones, R. A.

R. E. Brooks, L. O. Heflinger, R. B. Wuerker, R. A. Briones, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 92 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, R. E.

R. E. Brooks et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 275 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Brooks, L. O. Heflinger, R. B. Wuerker, R. A. Briones, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 92 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Burkhart, J.

W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).

Geeraets, W. J.

W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).

Guerry, D.

W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).

Ham, W. T.

W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).

Heflinger, L. O.

R. E. Brooks, L. O. Heflinger, R. B. Wuerker, R. A. Briones, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 92 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman et al., Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, H. A.

W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).

Newmann, D. B.

D. B. Newmann, “Moving Object Holography with Unblurred Images of Normal Brightness,” SPIE Holography Seminar Proceedings, San Francisco, California (1968).
[CrossRef]

Siebert, L. D.

L. D. Siebert, Proc. IEEE 56, 1242 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Siebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 326 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Soffer, B. H.

B. H. Soffer, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2551 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Vos, J. J.

W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).

Williams, R. C.

W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).

Wuerker, R. B.

R. E. Brooks, L. O. Heflinger, R. B. Wuerker, R. A. Briones, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 92 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wuerker, R. F.

R. F. Wuerker, “Pulsed Laser Holography,” Tech. Rep. AFAL-TR-68-371, USAF Avionics Lab.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. E. Brooks, L. O. Heflinger, R. B. Wuerker, R. A. Briones, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 92 (1965).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Siebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 326 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Federation Proc. (1)

W. J. Geeraets, W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, J. Burkhart, D. Guerry, J. J. Vos, Federation Proc. 24, 5 (1965).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. E. Brooks et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 275 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. H. Soffer, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2551 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

T. H. Maiman et al., Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. D. Siebert, Proc. IEEE 56, 1242 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Martin-Marietta Corporation, Proceedings of the First Conference on Laser Safety, G. W. Flint, Ed. (Martin-Marietta Corp., Orlando, Fla., 1966).

“A Guide for Uniform Industrial Hygiene Codes and Regulations for Laser Installation,” American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, Ohio (1968).

R. F. Wuerker, “Pulsed Laser Holography,” Tech. Rep. AFAL-TR-68-371, USAF Avionics Lab.

D. B. Newmann, “Moving Object Holography with Unblurred Images of Normal Brightness,” SPIE Holography Seminar Proceedings, San Francisco, California (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry for calculation of maximum object velocity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of object motion during holographic exposure (gas laser).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Basic components of ruby laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of coherent pulse laser system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Conductron model C-10 ultra-coherent pulse laser without cover.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized hologram image brightness/unit illumination vs optical path length difference (object beam − reference beam).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental configuration for making transmission holograms of humans.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental configuration for making reflection white light holograms of humans.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photograph of the reconstruction of the first pulsed laser hologram of a human (Siebert, 31 October 1967).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photograph of the reconstruction of a hologram of a dog.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Photograph of the reconstruction of a hologram of a man (Siebert) and oscilloscope.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Photograph of the reconstruction of a reflection white light hologram of Zech.

Tables (6)

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Table I Maximum Allowable Object Velocity a

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Table II Technical Specification for Conductron Corporation’s Ultracoherent Pulse Laser System C-10

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Table III Thresholds for Biological Damage by Laser Radiation at the Retina of the Eye

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Table IV Maximum Permissible Exposure Levels for Laser Radiation at the Cornea for Direct Illumination or Specular Reflection at a Wavelength to 0.6943 μ

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Table V Maximum Illuminance Permitted from a Diffuse Surface Reflection as Measured at the Reflecting Surface at a Wavelength to 0.6943 μ

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Table VI Comparative Properties of Holographic Plates

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ r 1 Δ ( r 2 + r 3 ) λ / 4 .
Δ m = 2 L ( Δ λ / λ 2 ) ,
Δ C = λ 2 / Δ λ .
A T = laser energy output 0.07 J / cm 2 = F S F × A L ,

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