Abstract

It has previously been recognized that wavelength derivative spectroscopy greatly enhances optical structure as compared to conventional absorption or reflectance methods. However, a practical wavelength derivative spectrometer must have a procedure to remove from the spectra the wavelength derivative of I0, the incident light intensity. A sensitive double beam wavelength modulation spectrometer is described which removes the dI0/dλ spectrum to a high degree of accuracy. The removal of the dI0/dλ spectrum is continuously optimized by means of a servo loop controlling the gain of the reference channel. The primary advantage of this spectrometer is that it does not require closely matched components in order to achieve double beam accuracy.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, Appl. Opt. 3, 1417 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Staufer, H. Sakai, Appl. Opt. 7, 61 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, G. Busca, S. Levialdi, G. Palmieri, E. Wanke, Appl. Opt. 4, 447 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Balslev, Phys. Rev. 143, 636 (1966); I. Balslev, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 21, 107 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Perregaux, G. Ascarelli, Appl. Opt. 7, 2031 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. E. Drews, Bull Amer. Phys. Soc. 12, 384 (1967).
  7. A. Gilgore, P. J. Stoller, A. Fowler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1535 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hagglund, F. Sellberg, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1031 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Cardona, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 958 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. L. Shaklee, J. E. Rowe, M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. 174, 828 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. J. Dean, D. G. Thomas, Phys. Rev. 150, 690 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Batz, thesis, University of Brussels, 1967.
  13. D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 150, 680 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1968

1967

G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, G. Busca, S. Levialdi, G. Palmieri, E. Wanke, Appl. Opt. 4, 447 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Drews, Bull Amer. Phys. Soc. 12, 384 (1967).

A. Gilgore, P. J. Stoller, A. Fowler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1535 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. Hagglund, F. Sellberg, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1031 (1966).
[CrossRef]

I. Balslev, Phys. Rev. 143, 636 (1966); I. Balslev, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 21, 107 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Dean, D. G. Thomas, Phys. Rev. 150, 690 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 150, 680 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964

1961

M. Cardona, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 958 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ascarelli, G.

Balslev, I.

I. Balslev, Phys. Rev. 143, 636 (1966); I. Balslev, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 21, 107 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Batz, B.

B. Batz, thesis, University of Brussels, 1967.

Bonfiglioli, G.

G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, G. Busca, S. Levialdi, G. Palmieri, E. Wanke, Appl. Opt. 4, 447 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, Appl. Opt. 3, 1417 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Brovetto, P.

G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, G. Busca, S. Levialdi, G. Palmieri, E. Wanke, Appl. Opt. 4, 447 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, Appl. Opt. 3, 1417 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Busca, G.

G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, G. Busca, S. Levialdi, G. Palmieri, E. Wanke, Appl. Opt. 4, 447 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

K. L. Shaklee, J. E. Rowe, M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. 174, 828 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. Cardona, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 958 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Dean, P. J.

P. J. Dean, D. G. Thomas, Phys. Rev. 150, 690 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Drews, R. E.

R. E. Drews, Bull Amer. Phys. Soc. 12, 384 (1967).

Fowler, A.

A. Gilgore, P. J. Stoller, A. Fowler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1535 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gilgore, A.

A. Gilgore, P. J. Stoller, A. Fowler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1535 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hagglund, J.

J. Hagglund, F. Sellberg, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1031 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hopfield, J. J.

D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 150, 680 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Levialdi, S.

G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, G. Busca, S. Levialdi, G. Palmieri, E. Wanke, Appl. Opt. 4, 447 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Palmieri, G.

G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, G. Busca, S. Levialdi, G. Palmieri, E. Wanke, Appl. Opt. 4, 447 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Perregaux, A.

Rowe, J. E.

K. L. Shaklee, J. E. Rowe, M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. 174, 828 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

Sellberg, F.

J. Hagglund, F. Sellberg, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1031 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Shaklee, K. L.

K. L. Shaklee, J. E. Rowe, M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. 174, 828 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Staufer, F.

Stoller, P. J.

A. Gilgore, P. J. Stoller, A. Fowler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1535 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, D. G.

D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 150, 680 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Dean, D. G. Thomas, Phys. Rev. 150, 690 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, E.

G. Bonfiglioli, P. Brovetto, G. Busca, S. Levialdi, G. Palmieri, E. Wanke, Appl. Opt. 4, 447 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull Amer. Phys. Soc.

R. E. Drews, Bull Amer. Phys. Soc. 12, 384 (1967).

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Cardona, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 958 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

J. Hagglund, F. Sellberg, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 1031 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 150, 680 (1966).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Shaklee, J. E. Rowe, M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. 174, 828 (1968).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Dean, D. G. Thomas, Phys. Rev. 150, 690 (1966).
[CrossRef]

I. Balslev, Phys. Rev. 143, 636 (1966); I. Balslev, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 21, 107 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Gilgore, P. J. Stoller, A. Fowler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1535 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Batz, thesis, University of Brussels, 1967.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractor plate drive mechanism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Derivative spectrum of incident light intensity using “Sun Gun” source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Derivative spectrum of incident light intensity using xenon arc.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of double beam wavelength modulation spectrometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the room temperature normal incidence reflectivity of InP (a) with the wavelength derivative of the reflectivity at room temperature (b) and 77 K (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength modulated absorption spectrum dα/dω of GaP at 240 K and 65 K.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Lorentzian broadened derivative of a square root edge.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I R = I 0 R ,
1 I R d I R d λ = 1 R d R d λ + 1 I 0 d I 0 d λ ,
d = x { 1 [ cos θ / ( n 2 sin 2 θ ) ] 1 2 } sin θ ,
sin θ = B cos Ω t ,
λ = λ 0 + x D [ 1 ( 1 / n ) ] B cos Ω t ,
A s ( Ω 0 ) = [ R s ( 1 R b ) d I 0 / d λ + I 0 ( 1 R b ) d R s / d λ ] Δ λ ,
A s ( 0 ) = ( 1 R b ) R s I 0 .
A s ( Ω 0 ) = ( I 0 1 d I 0 / d λ + R s 1 d R s / d λ ) Δ λ .
A R ( Ω 0 ) = ( I 0 1 d I 0 / d λ ) Δ λ ,
α ( ω ) ( ω ω g ± ω p h + ω e x ) 1 2 ,
d α / d ω ( ω ω g + ω e x ± ω p h ) 1 2 ,
d α d ω H ( W ) = ( W 2 + 1 ) 1 2 + W 1 2 ( W 2 + 1 ) 1 2 ,
W = ( ω ω g + ω e x ± ω p h ) / η ,
λ ( t ) = λ 0 + A cos Ω t ,
I R ( λ 0 , t ) = 1 2 a a a I 0 ( λ 0 + A cos Ω t + D X ) R ( λ 0 + A cos Ω t + D X ) ( | X | a ) d x ,
I R ( λ 0 , t ) = I 0 ( λ 0 ) R ( λ 0 ) + ( 1 12 a 2 D 2 + 1 4 A 2 ) × [ I 0 ( λ 0 ) R + R ( λ 0 ) I 0 + 2 R I 0 ] + A cos Ω t × { I 0 ( λ 0 ) R + R ( λ 0 ) I 0 + [ D 2 a 2 + ( A 2 / 8 ) ] × [ I 0 ( λ 0 ) R + R ( λ 0 ) I 0 + 3 I 0 R + 3 R I 0 ] } + higher harmonics ,

Metrics