Abstract

The characteristics of open Magnetic Electron Multipliers (MEM) with continuous dynode and field strips are discussed in view of their use in satellite-borne detection systems. Special emphasis is placed on selection, thermal stabilization, calibration, and long-time performance of the extreme ultraviolet detectors. Practical aspects of the design of satellite-borne detection systems, such as monitoring capabilities, immunity to charged particles, and electrical breakdown, are also described. Laboratory studies with fast electronics showed that the useful linear range of an MEM is restricted because of afterpulses. Most characteristics of MEM’s reported in the literature appear to be due to the use of relatively slow electronics that do not resolve the afterpulses. Statistical studies of afterpulses are reported, and a tentative explanation for the generation of afterpulses is outlined.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. J. Michels, W. R. Hunter, Appl. Opt. 6, 385 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. Heroux, Appl. Opt. 7, 2351 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Willmore, Appl. Opt. 6, 1391 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Willmore, in Proceedings of the Symposium of Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 87.
  6. U. Mayer, M. Mozer, M. v. Reinhardt, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 101; see also Appl. Opt. 8, 617 (1969).
  7. L. Goldberg, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, G. L. Withbroe, Science 162, 95 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. E. Hinteregger, Space Sci. Rev. 4, 461 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone Press, London, 1963).
  10. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967).
  11. V. L. Zworykin, G. A. Morton, L. Malter, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 24, 351 (1936).
  12. G. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. J. Lombard, F. Martin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 200 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. F. Goff, C. F. Hendee, in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Physical ElectronicsMIT, Cambridge, Mass., March1967, pp. 231–235.
  15. V. Y. Foo, R. C. Dougal, J. Phys. C 1, 1324 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. M. Reeves, M. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968).
  17. R. P. Madden, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968).
  18. R. P. Madden, “Calibration of Harvard College Observatory Tungsten Photocathode A,” June1969, unpublished report, Far UV Physics Section of the National Bureau of Standards (L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden).
  19. C. F. G. Delaney, J. A. Harwood, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. Ser. A 3, 57 (1967).
  20. D. R. Burrowbridge, “Workshop on Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.
  21. W. B. Hanson, in Satellite Environment Handbook, F. S. Johnson, Ed. (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1965), p. 23.
  22. N. L. Hazen, M. Huber, E. M. Reeves, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969; see also R. Dower, N. Hazen, J. Rechavi, “Failure Report of the Harvard College Observatory OSO-IV Experiment, Solar Satellite Project Tech. Rept. No. 7 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969).
  23. J. E. Stern, D. R. Mercy, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.
  24. F. W. Paul, D. R. Burrowbridge, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.

1968 (3)

L. Goldberg, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, G. L. Withbroe, Science 162, 95 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Y. Foo, R. C. Dougal, J. Phys. C 1, 1324 (1968).
[Crossref]

L. Heroux, Appl. Opt. 7, 2351 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (3)

1965 (1)

H. E. Hinteregger, Space Sci. Rev. 4, 461 (1965).
[Crossref]

1961 (2)

G. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. J. Lombard, F. Martin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 200 (1961).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

V. L. Zworykin, G. A. Morton, L. Malter, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 24, 351 (1936).

Allen, C. W.

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone Press, London, 1963).

Burrowbridge, D. R.

D. R. Burrowbridge, “Workshop on Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.

F. W. Paul, D. R. Burrowbridge, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.

Canfield, L. R.

R. P. Madden, “Calibration of Harvard College Observatory Tungsten Photocathode A,” June1969, unpublished report, Far UV Physics Section of the National Bureau of Standards (L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden).

Delaney, C. F. G.

C. F. G. Delaney, J. A. Harwood, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. Ser. A 3, 57 (1967).

Dougal, R. C.

V. Y. Foo, R. C. Dougal, J. Phys. C 1, 1324 (1968).
[Crossref]

Foo, V. Y.

V. Y. Foo, R. C. Dougal, J. Phys. C 1, 1324 (1968).
[Crossref]

Goff, R. F.

R. F. Goff, C. F. Hendee, in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Physical ElectronicsMIT, Cambridge, Mass., March1967, pp. 231–235.

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, G. L. Withbroe, Science 162, 95 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodrich, G. W.

G. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
[Crossref]

Hanson, W. B.

W. B. Hanson, in Satellite Environment Handbook, F. S. Johnson, Ed. (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1965), p. 23.

Harwood, J. A.

C. F. G. Delaney, J. A. Harwood, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. Ser. A 3, 57 (1967).

Hazen, N. L.

N. L. Hazen, M. Huber, E. M. Reeves, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969; see also R. Dower, N. Hazen, J. Rechavi, “Failure Report of the Harvard College Observatory OSO-IV Experiment, Solar Satellite Project Tech. Rept. No. 7 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

Hendee, C. F.

R. F. Goff, C. F. Hendee, in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Physical ElectronicsMIT, Cambridge, Mass., March1967, pp. 231–235.

Heroux, L.

L. Heroux, Appl. Opt. 7, 2351 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
[Crossref]

Hinteregger, H. E.

H. E. Hinteregger, Space Sci. Rev. 4, 461 (1965).
[Crossref]

L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
[Crossref]

Huber, M.

E. M. Reeves, M. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968).

N. L. Hazen, M. Huber, E. M. Reeves, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969; see also R. Dower, N. Hazen, J. Rechavi, “Failure Report of the Harvard College Observatory OSO-IV Experiment, Solar Satellite Project Tech. Rept. No. 7 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

Hunter, W. R.

Lombard, F. J.

F. J. Lombard, F. Martin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 200 (1961).
[Crossref]

Madden, R. P.

R. P. Madden, “Calibration of Harvard College Observatory Tungsten Photocathode A,” June1969, unpublished report, Far UV Physics Section of the National Bureau of Standards (L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden).

R. P. Madden, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968).

R. P. Madden, “Calibration of Harvard College Observatory Tungsten Photocathode A,” June1969, unpublished report, Far UV Physics Section of the National Bureau of Standards (L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden).

Malter, L.

V. L. Zworykin, G. A. Morton, L. Malter, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 24, 351 (1936).

Martin, F.

F. J. Lombard, F. Martin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 200 (1961).
[Crossref]

Mayer, U.

U. Mayer, M. Mozer, M. v. Reinhardt, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 101; see also Appl. Opt. 8, 617 (1969).

Mercy, D. R.

J. E. Stern, D. R. Mercy, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.

Michels, D. J.

Morton, G. A.

V. L. Zworykin, G. A. Morton, L. Malter, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 24, 351 (1936).

Mozer, M.

U. Mayer, M. Mozer, M. v. Reinhardt, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 101; see also Appl. Opt. 8, 617 (1969).

Noyes, R. W.

L. Goldberg, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, G. L. Withbroe, Science 162, 95 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parkinson, W. H.

L. Goldberg, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, G. L. Withbroe, Science 162, 95 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Reeves, M. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968).

Paul, F. W.

F. W. Paul, D. R. Burrowbridge, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.

Reeves, E. M.

L. Goldberg, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, G. L. Withbroe, Science 162, 95 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Reeves, M. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968).

N. L. Hazen, M. Huber, E. M. Reeves, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969; see also R. Dower, N. Hazen, J. Rechavi, “Failure Report of the Harvard College Observatory OSO-IV Experiment, Solar Satellite Project Tech. Rept. No. 7 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

Reinhardt, M. v.

U. Mayer, M. Mozer, M. v. Reinhardt, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 101; see also Appl. Opt. 8, 617 (1969).

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967).

Stern, J. E.

J. E. Stern, D. R. Mercy, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.

Timothy, A. F.

A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Willmore, Appl. Opt. 6, 1391 (1967).
[Crossref]

A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Willmore, in Proceedings of the Symposium of Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 87.

Timothy, J. G.

A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Willmore, Appl. Opt. 6, 1391 (1967).
[Crossref]

A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Willmore, in Proceedings of the Symposium of Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 87.

Wiley, W. C.

G. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
[Crossref]

Willmore, A. P.

A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Willmore, Appl. Opt. 6, 1391 (1967).
[Crossref]

A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Willmore, in Proceedings of the Symposium of Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 87.

Withbroe, G. L.

L. Goldberg, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, G. L. Withbroe, Science 162, 95 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zworykin, V. L.

V. L. Zworykin, G. A. Morton, L. Malter, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 24, 351 (1936).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Phys. C (1)

V. Y. Foo, R. C. Dougal, J. Phys. C 1, 1324 (1968).
[Crossref]

Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. (1)

V. L. Zworykin, G. A. Morton, L. Malter, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 24, 351 (1936).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

G. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. J. Lombard, F. Martin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 200 (1961).
[Crossref]

L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
[Crossref]

Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. Ser. A (1)

C. F. G. Delaney, J. A. Harwood, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. Ser. A 3, 57 (1967).

Science (1)

L. Goldberg, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, G. L. Withbroe, Science 162, 95 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

H. E. Hinteregger, Space Sci. Rev. 4, 461 (1965).
[Crossref]

Other (13)

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone Press, London, 1963).

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967).

A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Willmore, in Proceedings of the Symposium of Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 87.

U. Mayer, M. Mozer, M. v. Reinhardt, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968), p. 101; see also Appl. Opt. 8, 617 (1969).

R. F. Goff, C. F. Hendee, in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Physical ElectronicsMIT, Cambridge, Mass., March1967, pp. 231–235.

E. M. Reeves, M. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, ESRO SP-33, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968).

R. P. Madden, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Calibration Methods in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions of the Spectrum, Munich, May 1968, D. D. Clark, Ed. (European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968).

R. P. Madden, “Calibration of Harvard College Observatory Tungsten Photocathode A,” June1969, unpublished report, Far UV Physics Section of the National Bureau of Standards (L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden).

D. R. Burrowbridge, “Workshop on Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.

W. B. Hanson, in Satellite Environment Handbook, F. S. Johnson, Ed. (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1965), p. 23.

N. L. Hazen, M. Huber, E. M. Reeves, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969; see also R. Dower, N. Hazen, J. Rechavi, “Failure Report of the Harvard College Observatory OSO-IV Experiment, Solar Satellite Project Tech. Rept. No. 7 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

J. E. Stern, D. R. Mercy, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.

F. W. Paul, D. R. Burrowbridge, “Workshop on High Voltage Breakdown in Electronic Equipment at Low Air Pressures,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 5–7 March1969.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The crossed field multiplier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multiplier electric configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Trochoidal paths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Estimated electron spreading.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Influence of the direction of the electric field on the spacing of impact points.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The counting plateau.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cathode map, MEM 38.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Strip resistance temperature response.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Oscilloscope traces of the preamplifier for an M-310.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Introduction of a standard pulse generator to eliminate the effect of afterpulsing. Horizontally: 500 nsec/div. Vertically: upper trace—output of threshold discriminator (2 V/div); lower trace—output of standard pulses generator (5 V/div).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Distribution of afterpulse delays. Each one of 300 samples used was assigned to a 50-nsec interval.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Block scheme of the electronics used to count the total number of pulses associated with each one of a large number of photopulses.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Frequency of occurrence of successive afterpulses.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Dependence of the afterpulsing frequency on the primary pulse height.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Detection system with standard pulse generator.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Detection system linearity.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Frequencies and Probabilities of Multiple Afterpulses in an Experiment Involving 12,000 Primary Pulses (Assumption: p1 = p1)

Tables Icon

Table II Frequencies and Probabilities of Multiple Afterpulses in an Experiment Involving 12,000 Primary Pulses, After Correction for Threshold; the Probability p is Given by the Slope of the Linear Relation Connecting log P(i) and i

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ x x 0 = 1 π { υ y ( H / E ) arc tan [ υ y ( E / H ) υ x ] } ,
x 0 = ( 2 π m E / e H 2 ) × η = x 0 η ,
n i = 0 p i ,
P ( i ) = p i / i = 0 p i = p i ( 1 p ) .
log P ( i ) = i × log p + log ( 1 p ) ,
i = 0 p i = 1.831
i = 0 p i = 1 / ( 1 p ) = 1.845 ;

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