Abstract

A technique is described for recording holograms and forming diffraction gratings in Shipley AZ1350 photoresist using the 4579-Å output from an argon laser. A pre-exposure technique is described that not only reduces exposure times but increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the image. It is also shown that the effects of the variable characteristic of the resist can be alleviated by monitoring diffraction efficiency during development.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. K. Sheridan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 3 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Gerritsen, W. J. Hannan, E. G. Ramberg., Appl. Opt. 7, 11 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 1 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Beesley, H. Foster, K. G. Hambleton, Electron. Lett. 4, 3 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Beesley, J. G. Catledine, D. P. Cooper, Electron. Lett. 5, 12, 1969.
  6. H. Kogelnik, in Modern Optics, J. Fox, Ed. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1967).

1969

A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 1 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. J. Beesley, H. Foster, K. G. Hambleton, Electron. Lett. 4, 3 (1968).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Sheridan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 3 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Gerritsen, W. J. Hannan, E. G. Ramberg., Appl. Opt. 7, 11 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Beesley, M. J.

M. J. Beesley, H. Foster, K. G. Hambleton, Electron. Lett. 4, 3 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Beesley, J. G. Catledine, D. P. Cooper, Electron. Lett. 5, 12, 1969.

Catledine, J. G.

M. J. Beesley, J. G. Catledine, D. P. Cooper, Electron. Lett. 5, 12, 1969.

Cooper, D. P.

M. J. Beesley, J. G. Catledine, D. P. Cooper, Electron. Lett. 5, 12, 1969.

Flamand, J.

A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 1 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Foster, H.

M. J. Beesley, H. Foster, K. G. Hambleton, Electron. Lett. 4, 3 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, H. J.

Hambleton, K. G.

M. J. Beesley, H. Foster, K. G. Hambleton, Electron. Lett. 4, 3 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hannan, W. J.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, in Modern Optics, J. Fox, Ed. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1967).

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 1 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ramberg, E. G.

Sheridan, N. K.

N. K. Sheridan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 3 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. K. Sheridan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 3 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. J. Beesley, H. Foster, K. G. Hambleton, Electron. Lett. 4, 3 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Beesley, J. G. Catledine, D. P. Cooper, Electron. Lett. 5, 12, 1969.

Opt. Commun.

A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 1 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Kogelnik, in Modern Optics, J. Fox, Ed. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1967).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Depth plotted against exposure for undiluted and diluted developer for a development time of 1 min at 22°C, using the 4579-Å argon laser output to expose Shipley AZ1350 photoresist.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Efficiency of a phase grating plotted against: (a) the relative phase change between rays incident normally at the peaks and troughs of the fringes; (b) the peak-to-trough height of the fringes using the grating in transmission; (c) the peak-to-trough height of the fringes using the grating in reflection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram indicating the formation of phase gratings in positive photoresist.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Apparatus for obtaining optimum development of resist gratings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical photomicrograph of part of grating made in photoresist by two-beam interference.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scanning electron micrograph of grating.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

e = [ J n ( ϕ ) ] 2 ,
e = { J n [ ( 2 π / λ ) ( μ - 1 ) D ] } 2 ,
e = [ J n ( 4 π D / λ ) ] 2 .
R = A + 2 B + ( A 2 + 4 A B ) 1 2 A + 2 B - ( A 2 + 4 A B ) 1 2 .

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