Abstract

High altitude chemical vapor trails may not be photographed by day because of the intense background light of the sky. A comparison of several possible emission line detectors is given. An instrument incorporating an ultra-narrow interference filter in a differential radiometer is described and the results of a successful field test are given.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. R. Bates, J. Geophys. Res. 55, 347 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. D. Edwards, J. F. Bedinger, E. R. Manring, in Airglow and Aurorae, E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1955), p. 122.
  3. N. W. Rosenberg, D. Golomb, E. F. Allen, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 5895 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Jacquinot, Rep. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. T. Best, T. N. L. Patterson, Planet Space Sci. 9, 521 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. G. J. Minnaert, G. F. W. Mulders, J. Houtgast, Photometric Atlas of the Solar Spectrum (D. Schnabel, Kampert, and Helm, Amsterdam, 1940).
  7. F. L. Roesler, J. E. Mack, J. Phys. 28, Suppl. C2, 313 (1967).
  8. J. A. Curcio, L. F. Drummeter, G. L. Knestrick, Appl. Opt. 3, 1401 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Hill, C. F. Bruce, Australian J. Phys. 15, 194 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. D. Meilenz, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 68C, 73 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. T. Foskett, J. M. Weinberg, Appl. Opt. 8, 2185 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Filosofo, J. A. Greenspan, C. M. Croom, Appl. Opt. 4, 215 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. H. Lissberger, W. L. Wilcock, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 126 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. H. Blifford, Appl. Opt. 5, 105 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. H. Eather, D. L. Reasoner, Appl. Opt. 8, 227 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. J. Koomen, C. Lock, D. M. Packer, R. Scolnik, E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 353 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. K. Korchigina, V. I. Myukhk-yurya, T. A. Smirnova, Leningrad/Glavnaia Goefiz. Observ./Trudy, No. 93, 95 (1959).
  19. G. V. Rozenberg, Twilight (Plenum, New York, 1966), pp. 18, 25.
  20. E. E. Bell, L. Eisner, J. Young, R. A. Oetjen, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1313 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Gadsden, T. M. Donahue, J. E. Blamont, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5047 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. S. Dandekar, Applied Optics 7, 705 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. L. Knestrick, J. A. Curcio, Appl. Opt. 12, 2105 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961), p. 436.

1969 (2)

1968 (1)

B. S. Dandekar, Applied Optics 7, 705 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (2)

G. L. Knestrick, J. A. Curcio, Appl. Opt. 12, 2105 (1967).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Roesler, J. E. Mack, J. Phys. 28, Suppl. C2, 313 (1967).

1966 (2)

M. Gadsden, T. M. Donahue, J. E. Blamont, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5047 (1966).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Blifford, Appl. Opt. 5, 105 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

1964 (2)

1963 (1)

N. W. Rosenberg, D. Golomb, E. F. Allen, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 5895 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (4)

G. T. Best, T. N. L. Patterson, Planet Space Sci. 9, 521 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hill, C. F. Bruce, Australian J. Phys. 15, 194 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1960 (2)

E. E. Bell, L. Eisner, J. Young, R. A. Oetjen, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1313 (1960).
[CrossRef]

P. Jacquinot, Rep. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (2)

R. H. Lissberger, W. L. Wilcock, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 126 (1959).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Korchigina, V. I. Myukhk-yurya, T. A. Smirnova, Leningrad/Glavnaia Goefiz. Observ./Trudy, No. 93, 95 (1959).

1952 (1)

M. J. Koomen, C. Lock, D. M. Packer, R. Scolnik, E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 353 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

D. R. Bates, J. Geophys. Res. 55, 347 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Allen, E. F.

N. W. Rosenberg, D. Golomb, E. F. Allen, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 5895 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, J. Geophys. Res. 55, 347 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Bedinger, J. F.

H. D. Edwards, J. F. Bedinger, E. R. Manring, in Airglow and Aurorae, E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1955), p. 122.

Bell, E. E.

E. E. Bell, L. Eisner, J. Young, R. A. Oetjen, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1313 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Best, G. T.

G. T. Best, T. N. L. Patterson, Planet Space Sci. 9, 521 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Blamont, J. E.

M. Gadsden, T. M. Donahue, J. E. Blamont, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5047 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Blifford, I. H.

Bruce, C. F.

R. M. Hill, C. F. Bruce, Australian J. Phys. 15, 194 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. W.

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961), p. 436.

Croom, C. M.

Curcio, J. A.

Dandekar, B. S.

B. S. Dandekar, Applied Optics 7, 705 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donahue, T. M.

M. Gadsden, T. M. Donahue, J. E. Blamont, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5047 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Drummeter, L. F.

Eather, R. H.

Edwards, H. D.

H. D. Edwards, J. F. Bedinger, E. R. Manring, in Airglow and Aurorae, E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1955), p. 122.

Eisner, L.

E. E. Bell, L. Eisner, J. Young, R. A. Oetjen, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1313 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Filosofo, I.

Foskett, C. T.

Gadsden, M.

M. Gadsden, T. M. Donahue, J. E. Blamont, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5047 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Golomb, D.

N. W. Rosenberg, D. Golomb, E. F. Allen, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 5895 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Goody, R. M.

J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Greenspan, J. A.

Hill, R. M.

R. M. Hill, C. F. Bruce, Australian J. Phys. 15, 194 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Houtgast, J.

M. G. J. Minnaert, G. F. W. Mulders, J. Houtgast, Photometric Atlas of the Solar Spectrum (D. Schnabel, Kampert, and Helm, Amsterdam, 1940).

Hulbert, E. O.

M. J. Koomen, C. Lock, D. M. Packer, R. Scolnik, E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 353 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot, Rep. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Knestrick, G. L.

Koomen, M. J.

M. J. Koomen, C. Lock, D. M. Packer, R. Scolnik, E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 353 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Korchigina, K. K.

K. K. Korchigina, V. I. Myukhk-yurya, T. A. Smirnova, Leningrad/Glavnaia Goefiz. Observ./Trudy, No. 93, 95 (1959).

Lissberger, R. H.

R. H. Lissberger, W. L. Wilcock, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 126 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Lock, C.

M. J. Koomen, C. Lock, D. M. Packer, R. Scolnik, E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 353 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Mack, J. E.

F. L. Roesler, J. E. Mack, J. Phys. 28, Suppl. C2, 313 (1967).

Manring, E. R.

H. D. Edwards, J. F. Bedinger, E. R. Manring, in Airglow and Aurorae, E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1955), p. 122.

Meilenz, K. D.

K. D. Meilenz, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 68C, 73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Minnaert, M. G. J.

M. G. J. Minnaert, G. F. W. Mulders, J. Houtgast, Photometric Atlas of the Solar Spectrum (D. Schnabel, Kampert, and Helm, Amsterdam, 1940).

Mulders, G. F. W.

M. G. J. Minnaert, G. F. W. Mulders, J. Houtgast, Photometric Atlas of the Solar Spectrum (D. Schnabel, Kampert, and Helm, Amsterdam, 1940).

Myukhk-yurya, V. I.

K. K. Korchigina, V. I. Myukhk-yurya, T. A. Smirnova, Leningrad/Glavnaia Goefiz. Observ./Trudy, No. 93, 95 (1959).

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Oetjen, R. A.

E. E. Bell, L. Eisner, J. Young, R. A. Oetjen, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1313 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Packer, D. M.

M. J. Koomen, C. Lock, D. M. Packer, R. Scolnik, E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 353 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, T. N. L.

G. T. Best, T. N. L. Patterson, Planet Space Sci. 9, 521 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Reasoner, D. L.

Roesler, F. L.

F. L. Roesler, J. E. Mack, J. Phys. 28, Suppl. C2, 313 (1967).

Rosenberg, N. W.

N. W. Rosenberg, D. Golomb, E. F. Allen, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 5895 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Rozenberg, G. V.

G. V. Rozenberg, Twilight (Plenum, New York, 1966), pp. 18, 25.

Scolnik, R.

M. J. Koomen, C. Lock, D. M. Packer, R. Scolnik, E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 353 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Smirnova, T. A.

K. K. Korchigina, V. I. Myukhk-yurya, T. A. Smirnova, Leningrad/Glavnaia Goefiz. Observ./Trudy, No. 93, 95 (1959).

Volz, F. E.

F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, J. M.

Wilcock, W. L.

R. H. Lissberger, W. L. Wilcock, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 126 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

E. E. Bell, L. Eisner, J. Young, R. A. Oetjen, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1313 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Applied Optics (1)

B. S. Dandekar, Applied Optics 7, 705 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Australian J. Phys. (1)

R. M. Hill, C. F. Bruce, Australian J. Phys. 15, 194 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

D. R. Bates, J. Geophys. Res. 55, 347 (1950).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Rosenberg, D. Golomb, E. F. Allen, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 5895 (1963).
[CrossRef]

M. Gadsden, T. M. Donahue, J. E. Blamont, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5047 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (3)

E. E. Bell, L. Eisner, J. Young, R. A. Oetjen, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 1313 (1960).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Koomen, C. Lock, D. M. Packer, R. Scolnik, E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 353 (1952).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lissberger, W. L. Wilcock, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 126 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

F. L. Roesler, J. E. Mack, J. Phys. 28, Suppl. C2, 313 (1967).

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. (1)

K. D. Meilenz, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 68C, 73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Leningrad/Glavnaia Goefiz. Observ./Trudy (1)

K. K. Korchigina, V. I. Myukhk-yurya, T. A. Smirnova, Leningrad/Glavnaia Goefiz. Observ./Trudy, No. 93, 95 (1959).

Planet Space Sci. (1)

G. T. Best, T. N. L. Patterson, Planet Space Sci. 9, 521 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Progr. Phys. (1)

P. Jacquinot, Rep. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. D. Edwards, J. F. Bedinger, E. R. Manring, in Airglow and Aurorae, E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1955), p. 122.

G. V. Rozenberg, Twilight (Plenum, New York, 1966), pp. 18, 25.

M. G. J. Minnaert, G. F. W. Mulders, J. Houtgast, Photometric Atlas of the Solar Spectrum (D. Schnabel, Kampert, and Helm, Amsterdam, 1940).

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961), p. 436.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic elevation and plan views of a vapor trail tracking instrument. Mirror M3 on an altazimuth mount directs light from a selected small region of sky onto mirrors M1 and M2, which send two nonparallel beams through the filter. The segmented chopper allows each photomultiplier to sample each of these beams alternately.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative transmission by a 2.5-Å interference filter of lithium resonance line, as a function of angle of incidence for several temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of electronics system used to detect and plot signals generated by the instrument.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output plot made at sunrise. The horizontal scan lines were made at constant elevation, the signal being added to the elevation input. The heavy line shows the apparent position of the trail defined as being midway between the half-intensity points.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Composite of trail position data from both camera (solid line and halftone) and tracking unit (dashed line). All times are in minutes after launch. The vectors attached to the initial trail line show the apparent direction of motion. The data of Fig. 4 is shown here as the track at +27 min.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Relative Performance of Possible Trail Detectors, Expressed as Signal-to-Noise Voltage Ratio

Tables Icon

Table II Transmission Data for Two Narrow-Band Filters About Three Months After Manufacture

Equations (1)

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( δ λ / λ 0 ) = - P ( θ 2 / 2 ) .

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