Abstract

Long-range holographic experiments have been performed over distances as large as 12 km. Holograms and images of retroreflector and Scotchlite objects were obtained. The reference wave was supplied by a retroreflector placed next to the object, and the source of illumination was a Q-switched ruby laser. Resolutions obtained varied with atmospheric seeing conditions, ranging from 3 see of arc to 0.5 see of arc. The primary practical problem encountered was detector saturation, a consequence of the limited dynamic range of photographic film. The use of a low contrast developer only partially alleviates this problem.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. “Restoration of Atmospherically Degraded Images,” (National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1966).
  3. J. D. Gaskill, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 600 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. W. Stroke, An Introduction to Coherent Optics and Holography, (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966).
  5. E. T. Tyson, D. L. Fried, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1538 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Kozma, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 428 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. V. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1968).
  8. A. A. Friesem, J. S. Zelenka, Appl. Opt. 6, 1755 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. W. Goodman, G. R. Knight, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1276 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Bryngdahl, A. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1325 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Levy, Photo. Sci. Eng. 11, 46 (1967).
  12. J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 493 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

1968

J. D. Gaskill, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 600 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Tyson, D. L. Fried, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1538 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, G. R. Knight, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1276 (1968).
[CrossRef]

O. Bryngdahl, A. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1325 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

M. Levy, Photo. Sci. Eng. 11, 46 (1967).

J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 493 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Friesem, J. S. Zelenka, Appl. Opt. 6, 1755 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. Kozma, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 428 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, A. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1325 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

E. T. Tyson, D. L. Fried, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1538 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

Gaskill, J. D.

J. D. Gaskill, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 600 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. V.

J. V. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1968).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, G. R. Knight, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1276 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 493 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Huntley, W. H.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. W.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Knight, G. R.

J. W. Goodman, G. R. Knight, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1276 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kozma, A.

A. Kozma, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 428 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, M.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

M. Levy, Photo. Sci. Eng. 11, 46 (1967).

Lohmann, A.

O. Bryngdahl, A. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1325 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Stroke, G. W.

G. W. Stroke, An Introduction to Coherent Optics and Holography, (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966).

Tyson, E. T.

E. T. Tyson, D. L. Fried, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1538 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Zelenka, J. S.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

J. D. Gaskill, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 600 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, G. R. Knight, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1276 (1968).
[CrossRef]

O. Bryngdahl, A. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1325 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Tyson, D. L. Fried, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1538 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. Kozma, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 428 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 493 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Photo. Sci. Eng.

M. Levy, Photo. Sci. Eng. 11, 46 (1967).

Other

G. W. Stroke, An Introduction to Coherent Optics and Holography, (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1966).

“Restoration of Atmospherically Degraded Images,” (National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1966).

J. V. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1968).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaging through a randomly inhomogeneous medium by holography.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Profile of the 12-km path (heights measured in kilometers).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The laser transmitter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The target board.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The receiver.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hologram of retroreflector objects obtained on a night of good seeing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images obtained from the hologram of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Holographic images obtained on a night of poor seeing.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Holographic images of Scotchlite strip.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Hologram obtained on a night of bad atmospheric seeing.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Results obtained with HRP developer: (a) hologram; (b) holographic image; (c) conventional image.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Results obtained with POTA developer: (a) hologram; (b) holographic image; (c) conventional image.

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