Abstract

Color measurements with several different illuminating/viewing geometries were carried out for samples with four different surface textures in four different colors: matte papers, glossy papers, ceramic or porcelain enamel tiles, and polished opaque glasses, with ISCC–NBS color designations moderate pink, pale orange-yellow, dark bluish-green, and dark gray. On a single instrument (Cary 14 spectrophotometer), three geometries were used: normal/diffuse (N/D), diffuse/normal (D/N) and normal/45° (N/45). For comparison, measurements were also made on a GE spectrophotometer (GERS) using near-normal/diffuse geometry. All integrating sphere (diffuse) measurements were made with specular component both included and excluded. Specular gloss and goniophotometric reflectance measurements were made. For these samples, the Cary 14 N/D and GERS results are in good agreement, and the results with N/D and D/N geometries are essentially equivalent, but there is strong evidence of the serious problem of incomplete exclusion of the specular component with all of the integrating sphere geometries when operated in the specular-excluded mode, even with samples normally considered to be highly glossy or highly matte.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 290 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, Color Eng. 6, No. 1, 34 (1968).
  2. H. von Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Dover Publications, New York, 1962).
  3. H. J. McNicholas, Bur. Stand. J. Res. 1, 29 (1928).
  4. A. S. Stenius, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 727 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Johnston, Color Eng. 5, No. 3, 42 (1967).
  6. F. W. Billmeyer, R. L. Abrams, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol. 40, 143 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol., in preparation.
  7. W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 1141 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. W. Billmeyer, Appl. Opt. 8, 737 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. ASTM Standard Method of Test for Specular Gloss, ASTM designation: D 523.
  10. A. R. Robertson, W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 694 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. W. Billmeyer, R. T. Marcus, Color Eng. 6, No. 5, 61 (1968).
  12. F. W. Billmeyer, R. Smith, Color Eng. 5, No. 6, 28 (1967).

1969 (1)

1968 (3)

G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 290 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, Color Eng. 6, No. 1, 34 (1968).

F. W. Billmeyer, R. L. Abrams, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol. 40, 143 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol., in preparation.

F. W. Billmeyer, R. T. Marcus, Color Eng. 6, No. 5, 61 (1968).

1967 (2)

F. W. Billmeyer, R. Smith, Color Eng. 5, No. 6, 28 (1967).

R. M. Johnston, Color Eng. 5, No. 3, 42 (1967).

1965 (1)

A. R. Robertson, W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 694 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

A. S. Stenius, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 727 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 1141 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

H. J. McNicholas, Bur. Stand. J. Res. 1, 29 (1928).

Abrams, R. L.

F. W. Billmeyer, R. L. Abrams, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol. 40, 143 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol., in preparation.

Billmeyer, F. W.

F. W. Billmeyer, Appl. Opt. 8, 737 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Billmeyer, R. L. Abrams, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol. 40, 143 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol., in preparation.

F. W. Billmeyer, R. T. Marcus, Color Eng. 6, No. 5, 61 (1968).

F. W. Billmeyer, R. Smith, Color Eng. 5, No. 6, 28 (1967).

Davidson, J. G.

F. W. Billmeyer, R. L. Abrams, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol. 40, 143 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol., in preparation.

Johnston, R. M.

R. M. Johnston, Color Eng. 5, No. 3, 42 (1967).

Marcus, R. T.

F. W. Billmeyer, R. T. Marcus, Color Eng. 6, No. 5, 61 (1968).

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, Bur. Stand. J. Res. 1, 29 (1928).

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 1141 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A. R.

A. R. Robertson, W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 694 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

F. W. Billmeyer, R. Smith, Color Eng. 5, No. 6, 28 (1967).

Stenius, A. S.

A. S. Stenius, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 727 (1955).
[CrossRef]

von Helmholtz, H.

H. von Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Dover Publications, New York, 1962).

Wright, W. D.

A. R. Robertson, W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 694 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 290 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, Color Eng. 6, No. 1, 34 (1968).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bur. Stand. J. Res. (1)

H. J. McNicholas, Bur. Stand. J. Res. 1, 29 (1928).

Color Eng. (3)

R. M. Johnston, Color Eng. 5, No. 3, 42 (1967).

F. W. Billmeyer, R. T. Marcus, Color Eng. 6, No. 5, 61 (1968).

F. W. Billmeyer, R. Smith, Color Eng. 5, No. 6, 28 (1967).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (4)

A. R. Robertson, W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 694 (1965).
[CrossRef]

W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 1141 (1953).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Stenius, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 727 (1955).
[CrossRef]

G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 290 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, Color Eng. 6, No. 1, 34 (1968).

J. Paint Technol. (1)

F. W. Billmeyer, R. L. Abrams, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol. 40, 143 (1968);F. W. Billmeyer, J. G. Davidson, J. Paint Technol., in preparation.

Other (2)

ASTM Standard Method of Test for Specular Gloss, ASTM designation: D 523.

H. von Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, translated by J. P. C. Southall (Dover Publications, New York, 1962).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chromaticity and total luminous reflectance of bluish-green samples as measured with various illuminating and viewing geometries. For the integrating sphere geometries, the specular component was excluded (SE).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chromaticity and total luminous reflectance of pink samples, as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Goniophotometric curves of bluish-green samples, as described in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Goniophotometric curves of pink samples, as described in the text.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Color Differences, FMC MacAdam Units, between Repeat Measurements on the Same Sample

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Table II Color Differences,a FMC MacAdam Units, between Cary N/D and GERS Geometries

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Table III Color Differences,a FMC MacAdam Units, between Cary N/D and Cary D/N Geometries

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Table IV Color Differences,a FMC MacAdam Units, between Cary N/45 and Integrating Sphere Geometriesb

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Table V Specular Gloss (ASTM D 523)

Metrics