Abstract

The Bendix magnetic multiplier M 306, and the Mullard channel multipliers B 400 A and B 200 B were operated in the wavelength range 1.5 Å to 44 Å. Pulse height distributions, gain, and counting rate characteristics were investigated.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. R. Thompson, W. C. Wiley, Resistance Strip Magnetic Electron Multiplier Development M 306. Final Rep., Bendix Corp. (1960).
  3. W. C. Wiley, C. F. Hendee, Inst. Radio Eng. Trans. NS-9, 103 (1962).
  4. L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. C. Baldwin, S. I. Friedman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 16 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. Rumsh, V. N. Shchemelev, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 46 (1963).
  7. V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 4, 2048 (1963).
  8. V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 43 (1963).
  9. V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, E. P. Denisov, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 827 (1963).
  10. G. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 211.
  11. A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Wilmore, Appl. Opt. 6, 1319 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Adams, B. W. Manley, Electron. Eng. 37, 180 (1965).
  13. D. S. Angel, H. W. Cooper, W. F. Hunter, R. Tousey, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 215.
  14. D. S. Evans, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 375 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Mullard Ltd., The Channel Electron Multiplier (1967).
  16. D. G. Smith, J. Sci. Instrum. 43, 270 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. G. Smith, J. Sci. Instrtm. 44, 1053 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. E. Hinteregger, Space Astrophysics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1961).
  19. B. J. Waclawski, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 305 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. A. Bryant, A. D. Johnstone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1662 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Adams, B. W. Manley, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 88 (1966).
  22. K. C. Schmidt, C. F. Hendee, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 100 (1966).
  23. A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, A. Britov, V. N. Shchemelev, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 866 (1964).
  24. J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 19 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 338 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. H. Compton, S. K. Allison, X-rays in Theory and Experiment (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1954).

1967

Mullard Ltd., The Channel Electron Multiplier (1967).

D. G. Smith, J. Sci. Instrtm. 44, 1053 (1967).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Waclawski, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 305 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Timothy, J. G. Timothy, A. P. Wilmore, Appl. Opt. 6, 1319 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

D. G. Smith, J. Sci. Instrum. 43, 270 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Adams, B. W. Manley, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 88 (1966).

K. C. Schmidt, C. F. Hendee, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 100 (1966).

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 19 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 338 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

D. A. Bryant, A. D. Johnstone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1662 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Baldwin, S. I. Friedman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 16 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Adams, B. W. Manley, Electron. Eng. 37, 180 (1965).

D. S. Evans, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 375 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, A. Britov, V. N. Shchemelev, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 866 (1964).

1963

M. A. Rumsh, V. N. Shchemelev, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 46 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 4, 2048 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 43 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, E. P. Denisov, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 827 (1963).

1962

W. C. Wiley, C. F. Hendee, Inst. Radio Eng. Trans. NS-9, 103 (1962).

1961

C. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960

L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J.

J. Adams, B. W. Manley, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 88 (1966).

J. Adams, B. W. Manley, Electron. Eng. 37, 180 (1965).

Allison, S. K.

A. H. Compton, S. K. Allison, X-rays in Theory and Experiment (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1954).

Angel, D. S.

D. S. Angel, H. W. Cooper, W. F. Hunter, R. Tousey, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 215.

Baldwin, G. C.

G. C. Baldwin, S. I. Friedman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 16 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Britov, A.

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, A. Britov, V. N. Shchemelev, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 866 (1964).

Bryant, D. A.

D. A. Bryant, A. D. Johnstone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1662 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, R. B.

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 19 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 338 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Compton, A. H.

A. H. Compton, S. K. Allison, X-rays in Theory and Experiment (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1954).

Cooper, H. W.

D. S. Angel, H. W. Cooper, W. F. Hunter, R. Tousey, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 215.

Denisov, E. P.

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, E. P. Denisov, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 827 (1963).

Evans, D. S.

D. S. Evans, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 375 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, S. I.

G. C. Baldwin, S. I. Friedman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 16 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, C. W.

C. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, G. W.

G. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 211.

Hendee, C. F.

K. C. Schmidt, C. F. Hendee, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 100 (1966).

W. C. Wiley, C. F. Hendee, Inst. Radio Eng. Trans. NS-9, 103 (1962).

Heroux, L.

L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Hinteregger, H. E.

L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Hinteregger, Space Astrophysics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1961).

Hughey, L. R.

B. J. Waclawski, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 305 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. F.

D. S. Angel, H. W. Cooper, W. F. Hunter, R. Tousey, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 215.

Johnstone, A. D.

D. A. Bryant, A. D. Johnstone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1662 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lukirskii, A. P.

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, A. Britov, V. N. Shchemelev, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 866 (1964).

Madden, R. P.

B. J. Waclawski, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 305 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Manley, B. W.

J. Adams, B. W. Manley, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 88 (1966).

J. Adams, B. W. Manley, Electron. Eng. 37, 180 (1965).

Rumsh, M. A.

M. A. Rumsh, V. N. Shchemelev, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 46 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 43 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, E. P. Denisov, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 827 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 4, 2048 (1963).

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 19 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 338 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Savinov, E. P.

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, A. Britov, V. N. Shchemelev, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 866 (1964).

Schmidt, K. C.

K. C. Schmidt, C. F. Hendee, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 100 (1966).

Shchemelev, V. N.

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, A. Britov, V. N. Shchemelev, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 866 (1964).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 43 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, E. P. Denisov, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 827 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 4, 2048 (1963).

M. A. Rumsh, V. N. Shchemelev, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 46 (1963).

Smith, D. G.

D. G. Smith, J. Sci. Instrtm. 44, 1053 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Smith, J. Sci. Instrum. 43, 270 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. R.

R. R. Thompson, W. C. Wiley, Resistance Strip Magnetic Electron Multiplier Development M 306. Final Rep., Bendix Corp. (1960).

Timothy, A. F.

Timothy, J. G.

Tousey, R.

D. S. Angel, H. W. Cooper, W. F. Hunter, R. Tousey, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 215.

Waclawski, B. J.

B. J. Waclawski, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 305 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wiley, W. C.

W. C. Wiley, C. F. Hendee, Inst. Radio Eng. Trans. NS-9, 103 (1962).

C. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thompson, W. C. Wiley, Resistance Strip Magnetic Electron Multiplier Development M 306. Final Rep., Bendix Corp. (1960).

G. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 211.

Wilmore, A. P.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. J. Waclawski, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 305 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Eng.

J. Adams, B. W. Manley, Electron. Eng. 37, 180 (1965).

IEEE Trans.

J. Adams, B. W. Manley, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 88 (1966).

K. C. Schmidt, C. F. Hendee, IEEE Trans. NS-13, 100 (1966).

Inst. Radio Eng. Trans.

W. C. Wiley, C. F. Hendee, Inst. Radio Eng. Trans. NS-9, 103 (1962).

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSR, Ser. Fiz.

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, A. Britov, V. N. Shchemelev, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 866 (1964).

J. Sci. Instrtm.

D. G. Smith, J. Sci. Instrtm. 44, 1053 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Sci. Instrum.

D. G. Smith, J. Sci. Instrum. 43, 270 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. A. Bryant, A. D. Johnstone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1662 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 19 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 338 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Evans, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 375 (1965).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 846 (1961).
[CrossRef]

L. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 280 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Baldwin, S. I. Friedman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 16 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys.-Sol. State

M. A. Rumsh, V. N. Shchemelev, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 46 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 4, 2048 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 43 (1963).

V. N. Shchemelev, M. A. Rumsh, E. P. Denisov, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 5, 827 (1963).

The Channel Electron Multiplier

Mullard Ltd., The Channel Electron Multiplier (1967).

Other

H. E. Hinteregger, Space Astrophysics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1961).

R. R. Thompson, W. C. Wiley, Resistance Strip Magnetic Electron Multiplier Development M 306. Final Rep., Bendix Corp. (1960).

D. S. Angel, H. W. Cooper, W. F. Hunter, R. Tousey, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 215.

G. W. Goodrich, W. C. Wiley, in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium, Sp. 2 (NASA, Washington, D. C., 1961), p. 211.

A. H. Compton, S. K. Allison, X-rays in Theory and Experiment (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1954).

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Figures (22)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) In the background, the Bendix magnetic strip multiplier M 306. In the foreground the Mullard channel multipliers B 400 A (to the right) and B 200 B. For comparison, a matchbox is shown. (b) Schematic of the Bendix magnetic strip multiplier M 306. DSI: cathode and dynode strip input terminal; FSI: grid and field strip input terminal; DSO: dynode strip output terminal; FSO: field strip output terminal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical pulse height distribution of the magnetic strip multiplier M 306. Frequency of pulse heights (vertical deflection) vs pulse height in linear, arbitrary units. (a) multiplier 2, (b) multiplier 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximum gain and output current vs FSI. DSO— 380 V; DSI as parameter (in kV); ▲—counting mode, ×—dc mode, – – – – limit of instability.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum gain and output current vs DSO. DSI, FSI as parameters (in kV); △—pulse counting mode, ×—dc output current mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optimum output potential difference as a function of input potential difference. △—counting mode, ×—dc mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maximum gain and output current vs DSI. DSI − FSI = −500 V, DSO = −380 V; △—counting mode, ×-dc mode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Counting rate vs DSI; DSI − FSI = − 500 V, DSO = − 380 V.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Counting rate vs DSO; DSI = − 1.8 kV, FSI = − 1.3 kV.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Counting rate vs FSI; DSI = −12.0 kV, DSO = −380 V.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Resistance decrease with time. ○—B 400 A, ×—B 200 B. (b) Reduction in gain with time. △—pulse height B 400A; ▼—pulse height B 200 B; ×—photocurrent.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Pulse height distribution of the channel multiplier B 200 B at angle of incidence ϑ = 20°; frequency of pulse heights (vertical deflection) vs pulse height in linear, arbitrary units. (a) 3.0 kV, (b) 3.5 kV, and (c) 4.0 kV.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Pulse height distribution of the channel multiplier B 400 A at angle of incidence ϑ = 20°; frequency of pulse height (vertical deflection) vs pulse height in linear, arbitrary units. (a) 3.5 kV and (b) 5.0 kV.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Resolution vs applied voltage for both multipliers at different angles of incidence.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Reduction in gain with increasing counting rate for the B 200 B multiplier; △—counting mode, ×—dc mode; angle of incidence ϑ = 20°.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Reduction in gain with increasing counting rate for B 400 A; △—counting mode, ×—dc mode; angle of incidence ϑ = 20°.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Gain vs applied voltage. Counting rate as parameter. Angle of incidence ϑ = 20°; B 200 B.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Gain vs applied voltage. Counting rate as parameter. Angle of incidence ϑ = 20°; B 400 A.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Counting rate vs applied voltage; ▽—B 400 A, ▲—B 200 B.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

G: Gain of maximum 1—×, B: resolution—●, Q: quotient of maximum 1 and maximum 2 vs angle of incidence ϑ—▲; B 200B.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

G: Gain of maximum 1—×, B: resolution—●, Q: quotient of maximum 1 and maximum 2 vs angle of incidence ϑ—▲; B 400 A.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Dependence of the pulse height distribution on the angle of incidence for the B 400 A multiplier. Frequency of pulse heights (vertical deflection) vs pulse height in linear, arbitrary units. (a) ϑ = 0°, (b) ϑ = 20°, (c) ϑ = 50°, (d) ϑ = 80°.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Yields vs angle of incidence ϑ; ▲—B 400 A, ▽—B 200 B.

Equations (1)

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γ = [ N ( ϑ ) / N ( 0 ) ] ( 1 / cos ϑ ) ,

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