Abstract

The painstaking labors of a professor in Speyer, Germany, produced a most remarkable work on Fraunhofer diffraction over a century ago. Die Beugungserscheinungen by F. M. Schwerd (published in Mannheim in 1835) was profusely illustrated with excellent drawings of the calculated amplitude and intensity distributions of the Fraunhofer patterns of many interesting apertures and arrays. Some of these were carefully hand-colored to show the spectral distribution produced with white light. This paper provides a brief biographical sketch of Schwerd, and presents the beautiful experimental verification, which has recently been obtained with the aid of a computer generated diffraction plate, of the astounding accuracy of one of his color drawings.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. T. Lynn, Mon. Not. Roy. Ast. Soc. 33, 214 (1873).
  2. J. C. Poggendorff, Biograph-Lilerarisches Handwörterbuch zur Geschichte der exaclen Wissenschaften (Verlag von Johann Ambrosium Barth, Leipzig, 1863).
  3. Publikationen des Astrophysikalischen Observatorium zu Potsdam, (1925), No. 82, Vol. 25, part 5.Listed in British Museum General Catalogue of Printed Books to 1955 (Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1964), Vol. 216.
  4. Royal Society of London, Catalogue of Scientific Papers (1800–1863), (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1871), Vol. 5.
  5. F. M. Schwerd, Die Beugungserscheinungen aus den Fundamenlalgesetzen der Undulationstheorie Analytisch entwickelt und in Bildern dargestellt (Schwan und Goetz'schen Hofbuchhandlung, Mannheim, 1835).
  6. W. Feussner, Handbuch der Physik II, I, A. Winkelmann, Ed. (Verlag in Eduard.Trewendt, 1894), p. 604.
  7. O. Lummer, Müller-Pouillet's Lehrbuch der Physik und Meteorologie, 10th ed. (Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig, 1907), Vol. 2, part 1, p. 792.
  8. Ernst Mach, The Principles of Physical Optics (Methuen, London, 1926;The Principles of Physical OpticsDover, New York, reprint 1943), p. 289.
  9. G. B. Airy, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 5, 283 (1835).
  10. M. E. Mascart, Traité d'Optique (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1889), Vol. 3, p. 311.
  11. Thomas Preston, Theory of Light, 5th ed. (Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London, 1928), p. 307.
  12. Arnold Sommerfeld (trans. by O. Laporte, P. A. Moldauer), Lectures in Theoretical Physics, Vol. 4, Optics (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1954), p. 227.
  13. Amédee Guillemin, Les Phénomenes de la Physique (Libraire de L. Hatchetteet al., Paris, 1868), pp. iii, facing pp. 406 and 410.
  14. H. Bouasse, Z. Carrière, Diffraction (Librairie Delagrave, Paris, 1923), p. 50.
  15. J. C. Poggendorff, Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem. 38, 241 (1836).
  16. R. B. Hoover, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 721 (1968).
  17. R. B. Hoover, Amer. J. Phys. 37, 871 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. B. Hoover, The Ealing-Hoover Diffraction Plates, Theory and Application (Ealing Corporation, Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

1969

R. B. Hoover, Amer. J. Phys. 37, 871 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

R. B. Hoover, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 721 (1968).

1873

W. T. Lynn, Mon. Not. Roy. Ast. Soc. 33, 214 (1873).

1836

J. C. Poggendorff, Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem. 38, 241 (1836).

1835

G. B. Airy, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 5, 283 (1835).

Airy, G. B.

G. B. Airy, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 5, 283 (1835).

Bouasse, H.

H. Bouasse, Z. Carrière, Diffraction (Librairie Delagrave, Paris, 1923), p. 50.

Carrière, Z.

H. Bouasse, Z. Carrière, Diffraction (Librairie Delagrave, Paris, 1923), p. 50.

Feussner, W.

W. Feussner, Handbuch der Physik II, I, A. Winkelmann, Ed. (Verlag in Eduard.Trewendt, 1894), p. 604.

Guillemin, Amédee

Amédee Guillemin, Les Phénomenes de la Physique (Libraire de L. Hatchetteet al., Paris, 1868), pp. iii, facing pp. 406 and 410.

Hoover, R. B.

R. B. Hoover, Amer. J. Phys. 37, 871 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Hoover, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 721 (1968).

R. B. Hoover, The Ealing-Hoover Diffraction Plates, Theory and Application (Ealing Corporation, Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

Lummer, O.

O. Lummer, Müller-Pouillet's Lehrbuch der Physik und Meteorologie, 10th ed. (Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig, 1907), Vol. 2, part 1, p. 792.

Lynn, W. T.

W. T. Lynn, Mon. Not. Roy. Ast. Soc. 33, 214 (1873).

Mach, Ernst

Ernst Mach, The Principles of Physical Optics (Methuen, London, 1926;The Principles of Physical OpticsDover, New York, reprint 1943), p. 289.

Mascart, M. E.

M. E. Mascart, Traité d'Optique (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1889), Vol. 3, p. 311.

Poggendorff, J. C.

J. C. Poggendorff, Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem. 38, 241 (1836).

J. C. Poggendorff, Biograph-Lilerarisches Handwörterbuch zur Geschichte der exaclen Wissenschaften (Verlag von Johann Ambrosium Barth, Leipzig, 1863).

Preston, Thomas

Thomas Preston, Theory of Light, 5th ed. (Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London, 1928), p. 307.

Schwerd, F. M.

F. M. Schwerd, Die Beugungserscheinungen aus den Fundamenlalgesetzen der Undulationstheorie Analytisch entwickelt und in Bildern dargestellt (Schwan und Goetz'schen Hofbuchhandlung, Mannheim, 1835).

Sommerfeld, Arnold

Arnold Sommerfeld (trans. by O. Laporte, P. A. Moldauer), Lectures in Theoretical Physics, Vol. 4, Optics (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1954), p. 227.

Amer. J. Phys.

R. B. Hoover, Amer. J. Phys. 37, 871 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem.

J. C. Poggendorff, Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem. 38, 241 (1836).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

R. B. Hoover, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 721 (1968).

Mon. Not. Roy. Ast. Soc.

W. T. Lynn, Mon. Not. Roy. Ast. Soc. 33, 214 (1873).

Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc.

G. B. Airy, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 5, 283 (1835).

Other

M. E. Mascart, Traité d'Optique (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1889), Vol. 3, p. 311.

Thomas Preston, Theory of Light, 5th ed. (Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London, 1928), p. 307.

Arnold Sommerfeld (trans. by O. Laporte, P. A. Moldauer), Lectures in Theoretical Physics, Vol. 4, Optics (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1954), p. 227.

Amédee Guillemin, Les Phénomenes de la Physique (Libraire de L. Hatchetteet al., Paris, 1868), pp. iii, facing pp. 406 and 410.

H. Bouasse, Z. Carrière, Diffraction (Librairie Delagrave, Paris, 1923), p. 50.

R. B. Hoover, The Ealing-Hoover Diffraction Plates, Theory and Application (Ealing Corporation, Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

J. C. Poggendorff, Biograph-Lilerarisches Handwörterbuch zur Geschichte der exaclen Wissenschaften (Verlag von Johann Ambrosium Barth, Leipzig, 1863).

Publikationen des Astrophysikalischen Observatorium zu Potsdam, (1925), No. 82, Vol. 25, part 5.Listed in British Museum General Catalogue of Printed Books to 1955 (Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1964), Vol. 216.

Royal Society of London, Catalogue of Scientific Papers (1800–1863), (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1871), Vol. 5.

F. M. Schwerd, Die Beugungserscheinungen aus den Fundamenlalgesetzen der Undulationstheorie Analytisch entwickelt und in Bildern dargestellt (Schwan und Goetz'schen Hofbuchhandlung, Mannheim, 1835).

W. Feussner, Handbuch der Physik II, I, A. Winkelmann, Ed. (Verlag in Eduard.Trewendt, 1894), p. 604.

O. Lummer, Müller-Pouillet's Lehrbuch der Physik und Meteorologie, 10th ed. (Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig, 1907), Vol. 2, part 1, p. 792.

Ernst Mach, The Principles of Physical Optics (Methuen, London, 1926;The Principles of Physical OpticsDover, New York, reprint 1943), p. 289.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrations from Die Beugungserscheinungen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction plate used to produce Fig. 3 enlarged 4.6 times.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fraunhofer diffraction pattern produced by a regular array of square apertures.

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