Abstract

Equations and tabulated values of the index of refraction and the extinction coefficient are presented which can be used to calculate the reflectance of ocean water in the 1.5–15-μ range. Using double beam spectrophotometers, the reflectance of artificial ocean water with respect to the reflectance of distilled water was measured and compared with the calculated values for incidence angles of 60° and 70°. The agreement between the calculated and measured values was found to be well within the limits of experimental accuracy.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. Wilkerson, Geo-Marine Tech. 2, No. 8, 9 (1966).
  2. E. D. McAlister, Ocean Ind. 2, No. 5, 35 (1967).
  3. H. Stommel et al., Science 117, 639 (1953).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. J. McLellan, Elements of Physical Oceanography (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 129.
  5. D. Williams, W. Millett, Phys. Rev. 66, 6 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. L. Clark, Appl. Opt. 6, 2151 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. W. Davis, “A Bibliography of Certain Optical Properties of Liquid Water in the Infrared Region,” NRL Bibl.25, Aug1965.Requests for copies of NRL Bibliographies should be directed to the Director, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C., 20390.
  8. W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).
  10. H. V. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1942), p. 173.
  11. G. B. Livens, Phys. Z. 14, 660 (1913).

1968

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

H. L. Clark, Appl. Opt. 6, 2151 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. McAlister, Ocean Ind. 2, No. 5, 35 (1967).

1966

J. W. Wilkerson, Geo-Marine Tech. 2, No. 8, 9 (1966).

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).

1965

P. W. Davis, “A Bibliography of Certain Optical Properties of Liquid Water in the Infrared Region,” NRL Bibl.25, Aug1965.Requests for copies of NRL Bibliographies should be directed to the Director, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C., 20390.

1953

H. Stommel et al., Science 117, 639 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1944

D. Williams, W. Millett, Phys. Rev. 66, 6 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1913

G. B. Livens, Phys. Z. 14, 660 (1913).

Clark, H. L.

Davis, P. W.

P. W. Davis, “A Bibliography of Certain Optical Properties of Liquid Water in the Infrared Region,” NRL Bibl.25, Aug1965.Requests for copies of NRL Bibliographies should be directed to the Director, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C., 20390.

Dechambenoy, C.

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).

Fleming, R. H.

H. V. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1942), p. 173.

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. W.

H. V. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1942), p. 173.

Livens, G. B.

G. B. Livens, Phys. Z. 14, 660 (1913).

McAlister, E. D.

E. D. McAlister, Ocean Ind. 2, No. 5, 35 (1967).

McLellan, H. J.

H. J. McLellan, Elements of Physical Oceanography (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 129.

Millett, W.

D. Williams, W. Millett, Phys. Rev. 66, 6 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pontier, L.

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).

Stommel, H.

H. Stommel et al., Science 117, 639 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sverdrup, H. V.

H. V. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1942), p. 173.

Wilkerson, J. W.

J. W. Wilkerson, Geo-Marine Tech. 2, No. 8, 9 (1966).

Williams, D.

D. Williams, W. Millett, Phys. Rev. 66, 6 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys.

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).

Appl. Opt.

Geo-Marine Tech.

J. W. Wilkerson, Geo-Marine Tech. 2, No. 8, 9 (1966).

Icarus

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

NRL Bibl.

P. W. Davis, “A Bibliography of Certain Optical Properties of Liquid Water in the Infrared Region,” NRL Bibl.25, Aug1965.Requests for copies of NRL Bibliographies should be directed to the Director, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C., 20390.

Ocean Ind.

E. D. McAlister, Ocean Ind. 2, No. 5, 35 (1967).

Phys. Rev.

D. Williams, W. Millett, Phys. Rev. 66, 6 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Z.

G. B. Livens, Phys. Z. 14, 660 (1913).

Science

H. Stommel et al., Science 117, 639 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. J. McLellan, Elements of Physical Oceanography (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 129.

H. V. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson, R. H. Fleming, The Oceans (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1942), p. 173.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Graphical determination of the predicted values of the index of refraction and the extinction coefficient for ocean water.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative transmittance of pure and artificial ocean water (18.5-μ cell spacing, 25°C sample temperature).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Expanded scale presentation of relative transmittance of pure and artificial ocean water shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative reflectance of artificial ocean water at a 70° angle of incidence (chlorinity 19.0 ppt, 25°C sample temperature).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of relative salt concentration on the relative reflectance of artificial ocean water for two typical wavelengths at a 70° angle of incidence (25°C sample temperature).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative reflectance of artificial ocean water at a 60° angle of incidence (chlorinity 19.0 ppt, 25°C sample temperature).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Variation of the Index of Refraction n and the Extinction Coefficient k as a Function of Wavelenght for Pure Watera

Tables Icon

Table II Composition of Artificial Ocean Watera

Tables Icon

Table III Salinity Corrections for the Index of Refraction and the Extinction Coefficient as a Function of Wavelengthd

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R 1 = [ ( N 2 sin 2 θ ) 1 2 N 2 cos θ ( N 2 sin 2 θ ) 1 2 + N 2 cos θ ] 2 ,
R 2 = [ ( N 2 sin 2 θ ) 1 2 cos θ ( N 2 sin 2 θ ) 1 2 + cos θ ] 2 ,
N = ( n i ) K ,
R 1 = { a + b cos 2 θ 2 [ c ( n 2 k 2 ) + 2 d k n ] cos θ a + b cos 2 θ + 2 [ c ( n 2 k 2 ) + 2 d k n ] cos θ } ,
R 2 = a + cos 2 θ 2 c cos θ A + cos 2 θ + 2 c cos θ ,
a = ( e 2 + 4 k 2 n 2 ) 1 2 ; b = ( n 2 k 2 ) + 4 k 2 n 2 ; c = [ ( b + e ) / 2 ] 1 2 ; d = [ ( b e ) / 2 ] 1 2 ;
e = n 2 k 2 sin 2 θ .

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