Abstract

An experimental study has been made of techniques that can increase the diffraction efficiency of photographically recorded three-dimensional interference patterns. The efficiency is increased by using bleaching processes that convert the silver image into a dielectric image. Diffraction efficiency vs transmittance curves, chemical formulas of some bleaches, and the bleaching procedures are given. A maximum efficiency of 60%o has been achieved. Applications to holography and partitioned zone plates are demonstrated.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, Opt. Acta 8, 73 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Gabor, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 562A (1967).
  3. J. Upatnieks, A. Vander Lugt, E. Leith, Appl. Opt. 5, 589 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. J. Cutrona, E. N. Leith, L. J. Porcello, W. E. Vivian, Proc. IEEE 54, 1026 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. T. Cathey, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 457 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Altman, Appl. Opt. 5, 1689 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. M. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 533 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kogelnik, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Modern Optics (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1967).
  9. C. B. Burckhardt, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 601 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. George, J. W. Matthews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 212 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. I. Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Reinhold Publishing Corp., State College, Pa., 1963), pp. 964, 972, 973.
  12. A. A. Friesem, A. Kozma, G. F. Adams, Appl. Opt. 6, 851 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. N. Leith, A. Kozma, J. Upatnieks, J. Marks, N. Massey, Appl. Opt. 5, 1303 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. R. A. Mason, Photographic Processing Chemistry (The Focal Press, New York, 1966), p. 215.
  15. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 699 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

1968 (1)

H. M. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 533 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (4)

C. B. Burckhardt, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 601 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. Gabor, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 562A (1967).

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 699 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Friesem, A. Kozma, G. F. Adams, Appl. Opt. 6, 851 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (5)

1965 (1)

W. T. Cathey, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 457 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, Opt. Acta 8, 73 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adams, G. F.

Altman, J. H.

Burch, J. M.

J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, Opt. Acta 8, 73 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Burckhardt, C. B.

C. B. Burckhardt, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 601 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cathey, W. T.

W. T. Cathey, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 457 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Cutrona, L. J.

L. J. Cutrona, E. N. Leith, L. J. Porcello, W. E. Vivian, Proc. IEEE 54, 1026 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 562A (1967).

George, N.

N. George, J. W. Matthews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 212 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Modern Optics (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1967).

Kozma, A.

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 699 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Cutrona, E. N. Leith, L. J. Porcello, W. E. Vivian, Proc. IEEE 54, 1026 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Leith, A. Kozma, J. Upatnieks, J. Marks, N. Massey, Appl. Opt. 5, 1303 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, J.

Mason, L. R. A.

L. R. A. Mason, Photographic Processing Chemistry (The Focal Press, New York, 1966), p. 215.

Massey, N.

Matthews, J. W.

N. George, J. W. Matthews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 212 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D. A.

J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, Opt. Acta 8, 73 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Porcello, L. J.

L. J. Cutrona, E. N. Leith, L. J. Porcello, W. E. Vivian, Proc. IEEE 54, 1026 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sax, N. I.

N. I. Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Reinhold Publishing Corp., State College, Pa., 1963), pp. 964, 972, 973.

Smith, H. M.

H. M. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 533 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Upatnieks, J.

Vander Lugt, A.

Vivian, W. E.

L. J. Cutrona, E. N. Leith, L. J. Porcello, W. E. Vivian, Proc. IEEE 54, 1026 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. George, J. W. Matthews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 212 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (5)

C. B. Burckhardt, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 601 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. Gabor, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 562A (1967).

W. T. Cathey, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 457 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 533 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 699 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. M. Burch, D. A. Palmer, Opt. Acta 8, 73 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. J. Cutrona, E. N. Leith, L. J. Porcello, W. E. Vivian, Proc. IEEE 54, 1026 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Kogelnik, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Modern Optics (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1967).

N. I. Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Reinhold Publishing Corp., State College, Pa., 1963), pp. 964, 972, 973.

L. R. A. Mason, Photographic Processing Chemistry (The Focal Press, New York, 1966), p. 215.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction efficiency after bleaching vs transmittance of developed silver image with three bleaches: (2)—Chromium Intensifier Bleach (solid line); (1)—mercuric chloride bleach (dashed line); and (4)—combination R–10 and mercuric chloride bleach (dotted line). The numbers refer to the bleaches listed in the appendix.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency after bleaching vs transmittance of developed silver image of R–10 type bleaches: (3)—R–10 bleach (long dashed lines), modified R–10 bleach with potassium bromide replacing sodium chloride (solid line), and modified R–10 bleach with potassium iodine replacing sodium chloride (short dashed lines).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency after bleaching vs transmittance of developed silver image of potassium ferricyanide bleach, (5)—(solid line); potassium bromide and potassium ferricyanide bleach, (6)—(short dashed line); and of copper bromide and hydrogen peroxide bleach, (7)—(alternating long and short dashed line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaged transparency by partitioned zone plate consisting of three sperimpozed zones. Agular separation between zones was 2 and the angle between the to beams was 90°. Note the three areas where the image is aberration free.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstructed image from a bleached hologram. The image brightness was increased threefold over a similar unbleached hologram.

Equations (5)

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9 Ag + 12 NaCl + 7 H 2 SO 4 + ( NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 9 AgCl + Cr 2 Cl 3 + 7 H 2 O + 6 Na 2 SO 4 + ( NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 .
Ag + HgCl 2 AgClHgCl .
4 Ag + 3 K 3 Fe ( CN ) 6 Ag 4 F ( eCN ) 6 + 3 K 4 Fe ( CN ) 6 .
Ag + K 3 Fe ( CN ) 6 + KBr AgBr + K 4 Fe ( CN ) 6 .
Ag + CuBr 2 + H 2 O 2 AgBr + H 2 O + copper oxide .

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