Abstract

Cary model 14 spectrophotometers like other prism and grating instruments have polarization characteristics that affect the transmittance values of anisotropic or dichroic materials. In the uv, the degree of polarization is fairly constant from 3000 Å to 4000 Å, whereas in the visible, it shows some variation with wavelength. In the near ir, the variation of the degree of polarization with wavelength is large, showing sharply defined maxima at approximately 0.77 μ, 0.97 μ, and 1.27 μ. The spectral transmittance of optical quality sapphire, a uniaxial crystal, cut at 45°, 60°, and 90° to the c axis, showed undulations for certain orientations of the privileged directions.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. S. Gibson, M. M. Balcom, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 593 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. S. George, Appl. Spectrosc. 20, 101 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. L. Alpert in Infrared Theory and Practice of Infrared Spectroscopy, H. A. Szymanski, Ed. (Plenum Press, Inc.New York, 1964), Chap. 2, pp. 33–36. The quantity plotted as the ordinate in Fig. 2–11, p. 35, is (E⊥− E‖)/(E⊥+ E‖) (personal communication from H. W. Marshall, The Perkin-Elmer Corporation).
  4. A. L. Olsen, W. R. McBride, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1003 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. L. Olsen, M. E. Hills, Appl. Spectrosc. 21, 424 (1967). See forthcoming issue for erratum; the value 0.0009 should read 0.0014.
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light, Production and Use (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1962), Chap. 4, p. 53.
  7. Ref. 6, Chap. 4, pp. 63–64.
  8. C. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 269 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Stewart, W. S. Gallaway, Appl. Opt. 1, 421 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Hessel, A. A. Oliner, Appl. Opt. 4, 1275 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, 1953), Chap. 12, pp. 385–386.

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1963 (1)

A. L. Olsen, W. R. McBride, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1003 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

1952 (1)

C. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 269 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

K. S. Gibson, M. M. Balcom, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 593 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Alpert, N. L.

N. L. Alpert in Infrared Theory and Practice of Infrared Spectroscopy, H. A. Szymanski, Ed. (Plenum Press, Inc.New York, 1964), Chap. 2, pp. 33–36. The quantity plotted as the ordinate in Fig. 2–11, p. 35, is (E⊥− E‖)/(E⊥+ E‖) (personal communication from H. W. Marshall, The Perkin-Elmer Corporation).

Balcom, M. M.

K. S. Gibson, M. M. Balcom, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 593 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, 1953), Chap. 12, pp. 385–386.

Gallaway, W. S.

George, R. S.

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, M. M. Balcom, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 593 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Hessel, A.

Hills, M. E.

McBride, W. R.

A. L. Olsen, W. R. McBride, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1003 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Oliner, A. A.

Olsen, A. L.

Palmer, C.

C. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 269 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light, Production and Use (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1962), Chap. 4, p. 53.

Stewart, J. E.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (3)

K. S. Gibson, M. M. Balcom, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 593 (1947).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Olsen, W. R. McBride, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 1003 (1963).
[CrossRef]

C. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 269 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, 1953), Chap. 12, pp. 385–386.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light, Production and Use (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1962), Chap. 4, p. 53.

Ref. 6, Chap. 4, pp. 63–64.

N. L. Alpert in Infrared Theory and Practice of Infrared Spectroscopy, H. A. Szymanski, Ed. (Plenum Press, Inc.New York, 1964), Chap. 2, pp. 33–36. The quantity plotted as the ordinate in Fig. 2–11, p. 35, is (E⊥− E‖)/(E⊥+ E‖) (personal communication from H. W. Marshall, The Perkin-Elmer Corporation).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Specimen and polarizer holder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of HR Polaroid (Cary 14R, Ser. No. 1173). Curve A: Transmission axis vertical; Curve B: Transmission axis horizontal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Degree of polarization in the uv of Cary 14R, Ser. No. 1173 (Polacoat filter).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Degree of polarization in the visible of Cary 14R, Ser. No. 1173.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Degree of polarization in the near ir of Cary 14R, Ser. No. 1173.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Percent transmittance vs rotation of 90°-cut sapphire at 1.27 μ(Cary 14, Ser. No. 65).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral transmittance of sapphire cut at 0°, 45°, 60°, and 90° to the c axis; privileged direction at 45° to vertical (Cary 14R, Ser. No. 1173).

Tables (2)

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Table I Degree of Polarization at Selected Wavelengths for Three Cary Model 14 Spectrophotometers

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Table II Rayleigh Wavelengths in the First Order Spectrum

Equations (13)

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P = ( I max - I min ) / ( I max + I min ) ,
P = ( I H - I V ) / ( I H + I V ) .
A V - A H = log ( I H / I V ) = log R ,
P = ( R - 1 ) / ( R + 1 ) .
P corrected = [ ( k 1 + k 2 ) / ( k 1 - k 2 ) ] P uncorrected .
n λ R = a ( sin ϕ i + sin ϕ d ) ,
( n + k ) λ R = a ( sin ϕ i + 1 ) for grazing positive orders ,
- k λ R = a ( sin ϕ i - 1 ) for grazing negative orders ,
λ R = 2 a ( n + 2 k ) 1 ± [ 2 ( n k + k 2 ) 1 2 / ( n + 2 k ) ] sin α 1 + [ n tan α / ( n + 2 k ) ] 2
I = a 2 cos 2 ( α - β ) - a 2 sin 2 α e 2 β sin 2 ( ɛ / 2 ) ,
I = a 2 sin 2 ( / 2 ) .
I = a 2 - a 2 sin 2 ( / 2 ) = a 2 cos 2 ( / 2 ) .
I = a 2 sin 2 2 β sin 2 ( / 2 ) + constant .

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