Abstract

The role of the aerosol in atomic absorption spectroscopy is considered and theories of the production of aerosols by pneumatic and ultrasonic devices are outlined. The predicted droplet size is related to sensitivity and interference by Al and Si in the estimation of Mg. Experiments using pneumatic and ultrasonic (70-kHz and 115-kHz) nebulizers at sample flow rates from 0.05 ml/min to 3.5 ml/min and with spray chambers of 100-cm3 to 500-cm3 capacity are reported. The results obtained indicate that ultrasonic nebulizers must be operated at high frequency (>500 kHz) and high power to generate fine aerosols (~5-μ diam) at sample flow rates of 1–5 ml/min if they are to be an improvement in sensitivity and interference on the pneumatic nebulizer.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. L. Green, W. R. Lane, Particulate Clouds: Dusts, Smokes and Mists (E. & F. N. SPON Ltd., London, 1957), p. 34.
  2. S. Nukiyama, Y. Tanasawa, Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng. Japan 5,62, 68 (1939).
  3. R. Herrmann, C. T. J. Alkemade, Chemical Analysis by Flame Photometry (Wiley/Interscience, New York, 1963), pp. 25 and 115.
  4. C. D. West, D. N. Hume, Anal. Chem. 36, 412 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Ref. 3. p. 27.
  6. J. Dvorak, V. Norobilsky. Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hungary 30, 365 (1962).
  7. A. Hell, W. F. Ulrich, N. Shifrin, J. Ramirez-Munoz, Appl. Opt. 7, 1317 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. A. G. Rawson, Analyst 91, 630 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Pungor, Flame Photometry Theory (D. Van Nostrand Company, Ltd.London, 1967), p. 169.
  10. R. A. Castelman, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 6, 369 (1931).
  11. R. W. Lane, Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 1312 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. M. Bitron, Ind. Eng. Chem. 47, 23 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 23A, 811 (1967).
  14. W. R. Wood, A. L. Loomis, Phil. Mag. Ser. VII 4,22, 416 (1927).
  15. R. J. Lang, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 34, 6 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. N. Antonevich, Inst. Radio Eng. PGUE-7, 6 (1959).
  17. O. K. Eknadiosyants, Akust. Zh. 1, 127 (1966).
  18. B. I. Il’in, O. K. Eknadiosyants, Akust. Zh. 12, 310 (1966).
  19. K. Sollner, Trans. Faraday Soc. 32,187, 1532 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Bisa, K. Dirnagl, R. Esche, Siemens Z. 8, 341 (1954).
  21. E. G. Lierke, G. Griesshammer, Ultrasonics 5, 224 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. B. Gerken, L. M. Ivancov, B. I. Kostin, Zavodsk. Lab. 28, 1431 (1962).
  23. S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, Paper presented at the XIII Coll. Spectr. Int., Ottawa, Canada, 1967.
  24. L. De Galan, I. D. Winefordner, J. Quantum Spectrose. Radiative Transfer 7, 251 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Herrmann, W. Lang, Optik 19, 208 (1962).
  26. R. C. Weast, S. M. Selby, C. D. Hodgman, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1965–1966).
  27. S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 156 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

1968

1967

J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 23A, 811 (1967).

E. G. Lierke, G. Griesshammer, Ultrasonics 5, 224 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. De Galan, I. D. Winefordner, J. Quantum Spectrose. Radiative Transfer 7, 251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 156 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

O. K. Eknadiosyants, Akust. Zh. 1, 127 (1966).

B. I. Il’in, O. K. Eknadiosyants, Akust. Zh. 12, 310 (1966).

R. A. G. Rawson, Analyst 91, 630 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964

C. D. West, D. N. Hume, Anal. Chem. 36, 412 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962

J. Dvorak, V. Norobilsky. Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hungary 30, 365 (1962).

R. J. Lang, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 34, 6 (1962).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Gerken, L. M. Ivancov, B. I. Kostin, Zavodsk. Lab. 28, 1431 (1962).

R. Herrmann, W. Lang, Optik 19, 208 (1962).

1959

I. N. Antonevich, Inst. Radio Eng. PGUE-7, 6 (1959).

1955

D. M. Bitron, Ind. Eng. Chem. 47, 23 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954

K. Bisa, K. Dirnagl, R. Esche, Siemens Z. 8, 341 (1954).

1951

R. W. Lane, Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 1312 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1939

S. Nukiyama, Y. Tanasawa, Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng. Japan 5,62, 68 (1939).

1936

K. Sollner, Trans. Faraday Soc. 32,187, 1532 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1931

R. A. Castelman, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 6, 369 (1931).

1927

W. R. Wood, A. L. Loomis, Phil. Mag. Ser. VII 4,22, 416 (1927).

Alkemade, C. T. J.

R. Herrmann, C. T. J. Alkemade, Chemical Analysis by Flame Photometry (Wiley/Interscience, New York, 1963), pp. 25 and 115.

Antonevich, I. N.

I. N. Antonevich, Inst. Radio Eng. PGUE-7, 6 (1959).

Bisa, K.

K. Bisa, K. Dirnagl, R. Esche, Siemens Z. 8, 341 (1954).

Bitron, D. M.

D. M. Bitron, Ind. Eng. Chem. 47, 23 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Castelman, R. A.

R. A. Castelman, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 6, 369 (1931).

De Galan, L.

L. De Galan, I. D. Winefordner, J. Quantum Spectrose. Radiative Transfer 7, 251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Dirnagl, K.

K. Bisa, K. Dirnagl, R. Esche, Siemens Z. 8, 341 (1954).

Dvorak, J.

J. Dvorak, V. Norobilsky. Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hungary 30, 365 (1962).

Eknadiosyants, O. K.

O. K. Eknadiosyants, Akust. Zh. 1, 127 (1966).

B. I. Il’in, O. K. Eknadiosyants, Akust. Zh. 12, 310 (1966).

Esche, R.

K. Bisa, K. Dirnagl, R. Esche, Siemens Z. 8, 341 (1954).

Gerken, E. B.

E. B. Gerken, L. M. Ivancov, B. I. Kostin, Zavodsk. Lab. 28, 1431 (1962).

Green, H. L.

H. L. Green, W. R. Lane, Particulate Clouds: Dusts, Smokes and Mists (E. & F. N. SPON Ltd., London, 1957), p. 34.

Griesshammer, G.

E. G. Lierke, G. Griesshammer, Ultrasonics 5, 224 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hell, A.

Herrmann, R.

R. Herrmann, W. Lang, Optik 19, 208 (1962).

R. Herrmann, C. T. J. Alkemade, Chemical Analysis by Flame Photometry (Wiley/Interscience, New York, 1963), pp. 25 and 115.

Hodgman, C. D.

R. C. Weast, S. M. Selby, C. D. Hodgman, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1965–1966).

Hume, D. N.

C. D. West, D. N. Hume, Anal. Chem. 36, 412 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Il’in, B. I.

B. I. Il’in, O. K. Eknadiosyants, Akust. Zh. 12, 310 (1966).

Ivancov, L. M.

E. B. Gerken, L. M. Ivancov, B. I. Kostin, Zavodsk. Lab. 28, 1431 (1962).

Koirtyohann, S. R.

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, Paper presented at the XIII Coll. Spectr. Int., Ottawa, Canada, 1967.

Kostin, B. I.

E. B. Gerken, L. M. Ivancov, B. I. Kostin, Zavodsk. Lab. 28, 1431 (1962).

Lane, R. W.

R. W. Lane, Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 1312 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Lane, W. R.

H. L. Green, W. R. Lane, Particulate Clouds: Dusts, Smokes and Mists (E. & F. N. SPON Ltd., London, 1957), p. 34.

Lang, R. J.

R. J. Lang, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 34, 6 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Lang, W.

R. Herrmann, W. Lang, Optik 19, 208 (1962).

Lierke, E. G.

E. G. Lierke, G. Griesshammer, Ultrasonics 5, 224 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Loomis, A. L.

W. R. Wood, A. L. Loomis, Phil. Mag. Ser. VII 4,22, 416 (1927).

Norobilsky, V.

J. Dvorak, V. Norobilsky. Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hungary 30, 365 (1962).

Nukiyama, S.

S. Nukiyama, Y. Tanasawa, Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng. Japan 5,62, 68 (1939).

Pickett, E. E.

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, Paper presented at the XIII Coll. Spectr. Int., Ottawa, Canada, 1967.

Pungor, E.

E. Pungor, Flame Photometry Theory (D. Van Nostrand Company, Ltd.London, 1967), p. 169.

Ramirez-Munoz, J.

Rawson, R. A. G.

R. A. G. Rawson, Analyst 91, 630 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. W.

S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 156 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sachdev, S. L.

S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 156 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Selby, S. M.

R. C. Weast, S. M. Selby, C. D. Hodgman, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1965–1966).

Shifrin, N.

Sollner, K.

K. Sollner, Trans. Faraday Soc. 32,187, 1532 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Tanasawa, Y.

S. Nukiyama, Y. Tanasawa, Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng. Japan 5,62, 68 (1939).

Ulrich, W. F.

Weast, R. C.

R. C. Weast, S. M. Selby, C. D. Hodgman, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1965–1966).

West, C. D.

C. D. West, D. N. Hume, Anal. Chem. 36, 412 (1964).
[CrossRef]

West, P. W.

S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 156 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Willis, J. B.

J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 23A, 811 (1967).

Winefordner, I. D.

L. De Galan, I. D. Winefordner, J. Quantum Spectrose. Radiative Transfer 7, 251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. R.

W. R. Wood, A. L. Loomis, Phil. Mag. Ser. VII 4,22, 416 (1927).

Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hungary

J. Dvorak, V. Norobilsky. Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hungary 30, 365 (1962).

Akust. Zh.

O. K. Eknadiosyants, Akust. Zh. 1, 127 (1966).

B. I. Il’in, O. K. Eknadiosyants, Akust. Zh. 12, 310 (1966).

Anal. Chem.

C. D. West, D. N. Hume, Anal. Chem. 36, 412 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 156 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Analyst

R. A. G. Rawson, Analyst 91, 630 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Ind. Eng. Chem.

R. W. Lane, Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 1312 (1951).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bitron, Ind. Eng. Chem. 47, 23 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Radio Eng.

I. N. Antonevich, Inst. Radio Eng. PGUE-7, 6 (1959).

J. Acoust. Soc. Amer.

R. J. Lang, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 34, 6 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Spectrose. Radiative Transfer

L. De Galan, I. D. Winefordner, J. Quantum Spectrose. Radiative Transfer 7, 251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand.

R. A. Castelman, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 6, 369 (1931).

Optik

R. Herrmann, W. Lang, Optik 19, 208 (1962).

Phil. Mag. Ser. VII

W. R. Wood, A. L. Loomis, Phil. Mag. Ser. VII 4,22, 416 (1927).

Siemens Z.

K. Bisa, K. Dirnagl, R. Esche, Siemens Z. 8, 341 (1954).

Spectrochim. Acta

J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 23A, 811 (1967).

Trans. Faraday Soc.

K. Sollner, Trans. Faraday Soc. 32,187, 1532 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng. Japan

S. Nukiyama, Y. Tanasawa, Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng. Japan 5,62, 68 (1939).

Ultrasonics

E. G. Lierke, G. Griesshammer, Ultrasonics 5, 224 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Zavodsk. Lab.

E. B. Gerken, L. M. Ivancov, B. I. Kostin, Zavodsk. Lab. 28, 1431 (1962).

Other

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, Paper presented at the XIII Coll. Spectr. Int., Ottawa, Canada, 1967.

R. C. Weast, S. M. Selby, C. D. Hodgman, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1965–1966).

E. Pungor, Flame Photometry Theory (D. Van Nostrand Company, Ltd.London, 1967), p. 169.

R. Herrmann, C. T. J. Alkemade, Chemical Analysis by Flame Photometry (Wiley/Interscience, New York, 1963), pp. 25 and 115.

H. L. Green, W. R. Lane, Particulate Clouds: Dusts, Smokes and Mists (E. & F. N. SPON Ltd., London, 1957), p. 34.

Ref. 3. p. 27.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The production of an atomic vapor from a solution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Drop size distribution from a pneumatic nebulizer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Construction of pneumatic nebulizer. [Symbols relate to Eqs. (1) and (2).]

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Breakdown of liquid filament into droplets.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical curves of variation of mean volume/surface ratio, d0, with solution flow rate in pneumatic nebulization [Eq. (2)].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ultrasonic nebulizers: (i) velocity transformer, (ii) focusing bowl. a—air, b—aerosol, c—ceramic crystal transducer, d—velocity transformer, e—coupling medium (water), f—sample solution, g—spray chamber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Drop size distribution from ultrasonic nebulizers: - - - numerical distribution; — volume distribution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Theoretical curve of variation of mean numerical diameter d with frequency of ultrasound [Eq. (3)].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental curve of variation of absorbance arising from a 1.0-ppm Mg solution owing to a pneumatic nebulizer with changing sample flow rate.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental curves of variation of absorbance arising from a 2.4-ppm Mg solution due to penumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers at low sample flow rates. ■ pneumatic, ▲ ultrasonic (70 kHz), ● ultrasonic (115 kHz).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental curve of variation of the absorbance ratio (mixed solution/pure solution) with estimated mean volume/surface diameter of dry particle. ● 20 ppm Al, ▼ 100 ppm Al, △ pneumatic (~0.10 ml/min) ▽ pneumatic (~3.5 ml/min), ○ ultrasonic (115 kHz), □ ultrasonic (70 kHz).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Effect of Spray Chamber Length on Absorbance Due to a 1.0-ppm Mg Solution at Various Flow Rates

Tables Icon

Table II Variation of Interference by Al and Si in the Estimation of 1.0-ppm Mg with Pneumatic and Ultrasonic Nebulizers at Various Flow Ratesa

Tables Icon

Table III Estimated Mean Volume/Surface Diameter of Dry Particles Entering the Flame

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q L = ( π R 4 Δ P / 8 η l ) ( cm 3 sec - 1 ) ,
d 0 = 585 ( u - v ) [ γ ρ ] 0.5 + 597 [ η γ ρ 0.5 ] 0.45 [ 10 3 Q L Q G ] 1.5 ,
d = ( π γ ) / ( 4 ρ F 2 ) ,

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