Abstract

Excitation conditions for the green HPO bands, the uv PO bands, and the violet S2 bands were explored. A cylindrical glass shield placed around the tip of a Beckman (sprayer) burner provided a simple arrangement to isolate a fuel rich environment of a reversed air–hydrogen flame. Samples were converted to aerosol in a separate nebulization chamber. The HPO band at 5262 Å gave a detection limit of 6 μg/ml; the S2 band, 5 μg/ml. Owing to low flame noise, both detection limits could be improved with interference filters in place of the Beckman small quartz monochromator. The PO bands are emitted best from fuel rich oxygen–acetylene flames with the normal Beckman sprayer burner. The significant aspect of this study lies in the introduction of liquid samples and circumvention of lengthy, and often uncertain, decomposition steps when handling many types of organic and biochemical compounds containing phosphorus and sulfur.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Dean, Flame Photometry (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1960), Chap. 20.
  2. R. K. Skogerboe, A. S. Gravatt, G. H. Morrison, Anal. Chem. 39, 1602 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Salet, Bull. Soc. Chim. France 11, 302 (1869).
  4. R. Geuter, Z. Wiss. Photog. 5, 33 (1907).
  5. E. B. Ludlum, J. Chem. Phys. 3, 617 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Rumpf, Z. Phys. Chem. B38, 469 (1938).
  7. H. Dräger, B. Dräger, German Pat.1,133,918 (July1962); C. E. van der Smissen, U. S. Pat.3,213,747 (26Oct.1965).
  8. W. L. Crider, Anal. Chem. 37, 1770 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 506 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Dean, J. C. Simms, Anal. Chem. 35, 699 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flames (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1957).
  12. E. M. Bulewicz, T. M. Sugden, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1855 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 60, 1289 (1963); J. Chim. Phys. 61, 452 (1964).
  14. C. P. Fenimore, G. W. Jones, Combustion and Flame 8, 133 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 61, 1531 (1964).
  16. P. T. Gilbert, Beckman Instruments, Inc., Fullerton, Calif. private communication.
  17. A. Fowler, W. M. Vaidya, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 132, 310 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Crone, in Ref. 11, p. 220.
  19. A. G. Gaydon, G. Whittingham, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 189, 313 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. M. Sugden, A. Demerdache, Nature 195, 596 (1962)
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Lask, H. G. Wagner, in Eighth International Symposium on Combustion (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1962), p.432.

1967 (2)

R. K. Skogerboe, A. S. Gravatt, G. H. Morrison, Anal. Chem. 39, 1602 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 506 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

W. L. Crider, Anal. Chem. 37, 1770 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

C. P. Fenimore, G. W. Jones, Combustion and Flame 8, 133 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 61, 1531 (1964).

1963 (2)

M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 60, 1289 (1963); J. Chim. Phys. 61, 452 (1964).

J. A. Dean, J. C. Simms, Anal. Chem. 35, 699 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

T. M. Sugden, A. Demerdache, Nature 195, 596 (1962)
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

E. M. Bulewicz, T. M. Sugden, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1855 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

A. G. Gaydon, G. Whittingham, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 189, 313 (1947).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

K. Rumpf, Z. Phys. Chem. B38, 469 (1938).

1935 (1)

E. B. Ludlum, J. Chem. Phys. 3, 617 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

A. Fowler, W. M. Vaidya, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 132, 310 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1907 (1)

R. Geuter, Z. Wiss. Photog. 5, 33 (1907).

1869 (1)

G. Salet, Bull. Soc. Chim. France 11, 302 (1869).

Bulewicz, E. M.

E. M. Bulewicz, T. M. Sugden, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1855 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Crider, W. L.

W. L. Crider, Anal. Chem. 37, 1770 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Crone, W.

W. Crone, in Ref. 11, p. 220.

Dagnall, R. M.

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 506 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Dean, J. A.

J. A. Dean, J. C. Simms, Anal. Chem. 35, 699 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dean, Flame Photometry (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1960), Chap. 20.

Demerdache, A.

T. M. Sugden, A. Demerdache, Nature 195, 596 (1962)
[CrossRef]

Dräger, B.

H. Dräger, B. Dräger, German Pat.1,133,918 (July1962); C. E. van der Smissen, U. S. Pat.3,213,747 (26Oct.1965).

Dräger, H.

H. Dräger, B. Dräger, German Pat.1,133,918 (July1962); C. E. van der Smissen, U. S. Pat.3,213,747 (26Oct.1965).

Fenimore, C. P.

C. P. Fenimore, G. W. Jones, Combustion and Flame 8, 133 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, A.

A. Fowler, W. M. Vaidya, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 132, 310 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Gaydon, A. G.

A. G. Gaydon, G. Whittingham, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 189, 313 (1947).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flames (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1957).

Geuter, R.

R. Geuter, Z. Wiss. Photog. 5, 33 (1907).

Gilbert, P. T.

P. T. Gilbert, Beckman Instruments, Inc., Fullerton, Calif. private communication.

Gravatt, A. S.

R. K. Skogerboe, A. S. Gravatt, G. H. Morrison, Anal. Chem. 39, 1602 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, G. W.

C. P. Fenimore, G. W. Jones, Combustion and Flame 8, 133 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Lam Thanh, M.

M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 61, 1531 (1964).

M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 60, 1289 (1963); J. Chim. Phys. 61, 452 (1964).

Lask, G.

G. Lask, H. G. Wagner, in Eighth International Symposium on Combustion (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1962), p.432.

Ludlum, E. B.

E. B. Ludlum, J. Chem. Phys. 3, 617 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, G. H.

R. K. Skogerboe, A. S. Gravatt, G. H. Morrison, Anal. Chem. 39, 1602 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyron, M.

M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 61, 1531 (1964).

M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 60, 1289 (1963); J. Chim. Phys. 61, 452 (1964).

Rumpf, K.

K. Rumpf, Z. Phys. Chem. B38, 469 (1938).

Salet, G.

G. Salet, Bull. Soc. Chim. France 11, 302 (1869).

Simms, J. C.

J. A. Dean, J. C. Simms, Anal. Chem. 35, 699 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Skogerboe, R. K.

R. K. Skogerboe, A. S. Gravatt, G. H. Morrison, Anal. Chem. 39, 1602 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugden, T. M.

T. M. Sugden, A. Demerdache, Nature 195, 596 (1962)
[CrossRef]

E. M. Bulewicz, T. M. Sugden, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1855 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, K. C.

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 506 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Vaidya, W. M.

A. Fowler, W. M. Vaidya, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 132, 310 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, H. G.

G. Lask, H. G. Wagner, in Eighth International Symposium on Combustion (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1962), p.432.

West, T. S.

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 506 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Whittingham, G.

A. G. Gaydon, G. Whittingham, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 189, 313 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (3)

R. K. Skogerboe, A. S. Gravatt, G. H. Morrison, Anal. Chem. 39, 1602 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Crider, Anal. Chem. 37, 1770 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dean, J. C. Simms, Anal. Chem. 35, 699 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 506 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Soc. Chim. France (1)

G. Salet, Bull. Soc. Chim. France 11, 302 (1869).

Combustion and Flame (1)

C. P. Fenimore, G. W. Jones, Combustion and Flame 8, 133 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

E. B. Ludlum, J. Chem. Phys. 3, 617 (1935).
[CrossRef]

J. Chim. Phys. (2)

M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 61, 1531 (1964).

M. Lam Thanh, M. Peyron, J. Chim. Phys. 60, 1289 (1963); J. Chim. Phys. 61, 452 (1964).

Nature (1)

T. M. Sugden, A. Demerdache, Nature 195, 596 (1962)
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A (2)

A. G. Gaydon, G. Whittingham, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 189, 313 (1947).
[CrossRef]

A. Fowler, W. M. Vaidya, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 132, 310 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

E. M. Bulewicz, T. M. Sugden, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1855 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. Rumpf, Z. Phys. Chem. B38, 469 (1938).

Z. Wiss. Photog. (1)

R. Geuter, Z. Wiss. Photog. 5, 33 (1907).

Other (6)

H. Dräger, B. Dräger, German Pat.1,133,918 (July1962); C. E. van der Smissen, U. S. Pat.3,213,747 (26Oct.1965).

A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flames (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1957).

J. A. Dean, Flame Photometry (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1960), Chap. 20.

P. T. Gilbert, Beckman Instruments, Inc., Fullerton, Calif. private communication.

W. Crone, in Ref. 11, p. 220.

G. Lask, H. G. Wagner, in Eighth International Symposium on Combustion (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1962), p.432.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of nebulizer and tee connection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of shielded fuel-rich air–hydrogen flame and areas of coloration observed when a phosphorus containing aerosol enters the flame.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The HPO band system of phosphorus. Slit, 0.30 mm. Dashed line, underlying continuum.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Effect of Mixing Argon with Air Upon Emission Intensity of HPO Band

Tables Icon

Table II Effect of Mixing Argon with Oxygen upon Emission Intensity of HPO Band

Tables Icon

Table III Shield Dimensions and HPO Band Intensity

Tables Icon

Table IV Shield Dimensions and S2 Band Intensity

Tables Icon

Table V Emission Intensity of Different Phosphorus-Containing Compounds

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H + O 2 OH + O
O + H 2 OH + H
OH + H 2 H 2 O + H .
H + H + M H 2 + M
OH + H + M H 2 O + M .
P 2 + O P + PO
P + OH PO + H
H + PO + M HPO * + M
H + PO * HPO *
H + H + S 2 S 2 * + H 2
OH + H + S 2 S 2 * + H 2 O
2 SO SO 2 + 1 2 S 2 .

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