Abstract

It is well known that most of the burners presently used to produce high temperature, premixed flames have the tendency to be discouragingly wasteful of the sample solution, often bringing only a small fraction of the amount used into the flame. This paper reports on the construction and performance of a highly efficient total consumption burner that produces a nonturbulent acetylene–nitrous oxide flame from premixed gases. The eighteen flame emission detection limits tabulated for a select group of elements compare favorably with the best values heretofore reported in the literature, and the apparent freedom of alkaline earth emission from phosphate interference indicates the total consumption flame here described to be less subject to chemical interference than is the conventional diffusion flame. The relatively low cost burner that has been developed is convenient to operate and can be quickly assembled from commercially available components.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Mavrodineanu, Appl. Spectrosc. 14, 17 (1960).
  2. V. A. Fassel, Paper No. 85, 18th Annual Mid-America Symposium on Spectroscopy, Chicago, Illinois, May 1967.
  3. V. A. Fassel, D. A. Becker, Paper No. 66, Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, XIII, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, June 1967.
  4. E. E. Pickett, S. R. Koirtyohann, Spectrochim. Acta 22B, 235 (1968).
  5. R. H. Curry, Ph.D. thesis, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa, 1962 (unpublished).
  6. V. A. Fassel, R. H. Curry, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 18, 1127 (1962).
  7. V. A. Fassel, R. B. Myers, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 19, 1187 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, R. H. Curry, R. B. Myers, Anal. Chem. 36, 532 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. C. Maining, L. Capacho-Delgado, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 312 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 35, 910 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. P. D’Silva, R. N. Kiniseley, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 36, 1287 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. D. Amos, Paper No. 67, Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, XIII, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, June 1967.
  13. W. G. Parker, H. G. Wolfhard, in Fourth International Symposium on Combustion (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1953), p. 420.
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. G. Wolfhard, W. G. Parker, in Fifth International Symposium on Combustion (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1955), p. 718.
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. A. Fassel, D. W. Golightly, Anal. Chem. 39, 466 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. D. Amos, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1325 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Herrmann, C. T. J. Alkemade, Chemical Analysis by Flame Photometry (Interscience, New York, 1963).
  19. W. Slavin, Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 9 (1967).

1968 (1)

E. E. Pickett, S. R. Koirtyohann, Spectrochim. Acta 22B, 235 (1968).

1967 (2)

V. A. Fassel, D. W. Golightly, Anal. Chem. 39, 466 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. Slavin, Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 9 (1967).

1966 (2)

M. D. Amos, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1325 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Maining, L. Capacho-Delgado, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, R. H. Curry, R. B. Myers, Anal. Chem. 36, 532 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. P. D’Silva, R. N. Kiniseley, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 36, 1287 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 35, 910 (1963).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, R. B. Myers, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 19, 1187 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

V. A. Fassel, R. H. Curry, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 18, 1127 (1962).

1960 (1)

R. Mavrodineanu, Appl. Spectrosc. 14, 17 (1960).

Alkemade, C. T. J.

R. Herrmann, C. T. J. Alkemade, Chemical Analysis by Flame Photometry (Interscience, New York, 1963).

Amos, M. D.

M. D. Amos, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1325 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Amos, Paper No. 67, Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, XIII, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, June 1967.

Becker, D. A.

V. A. Fassel, D. A. Becker, Paper No. 66, Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, XIII, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, June 1967.

Capacho-Delgado, L.

D. C. Maining, L. Capacho-Delgado, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Curry, R. H.

V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, R. H. Curry, R. B. Myers, Anal. Chem. 36, 532 (1964).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, R. H. Curry, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 18, 1127 (1962).

R. H. Curry, Ph.D. thesis, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa, 1962 (unpublished).

D’Silva, A. P.

V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, R. H. Curry, R. B. Myers, Anal. Chem. 36, 532 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. P. D’Silva, R. N. Kiniseley, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 36, 1287 (1964).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 35, 910 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Fassel, V. A.

V. A. Fassel, D. W. Golightly, Anal. Chem. 39, 466 (1967).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, R. H. Curry, R. B. Myers, Anal. Chem. 36, 532 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. P. D’Silva, R. N. Kiniseley, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 36, 1287 (1964).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, R. B. Myers, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 19, 1187 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 35, 910 (1963).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, R. H. Curry, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 18, 1127 (1962).

V. A. Fassel, Paper No. 85, 18th Annual Mid-America Symposium on Spectroscopy, Chicago, Illinois, May 1967.

V. A. Fassel, D. A. Becker, Paper No. 66, Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, XIII, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, June 1967.

Golightly, D. W.

V. A. Fassel, D. W. Golightly, Anal. Chem. 39, 466 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, R.

R. Herrmann, C. T. J. Alkemade, Chemical Analysis by Flame Photometry (Interscience, New York, 1963).

Kiniseley, R. N.

A. P. D’Silva, R. N. Kiniseley, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 36, 1287 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kniseley, R. N.

V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, R. H. Curry, R. B. Myers, Anal. Chem. 36, 532 (1964).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 35, 910 (1963).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, R. B. Myers, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 19, 1187 (1963).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, R. H. Curry, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 18, 1127 (1962).

Koirtyohann, S. R.

E. E. Pickett, S. R. Koirtyohann, Spectrochim. Acta 22B, 235 (1968).

Maining, D. C.

D. C. Maining, L. Capacho-Delgado, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Mavrodineanu, R.

R. Mavrodineanu, Appl. Spectrosc. 14, 17 (1960).

Myers, R. B.

V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, R. H. Curry, R. B. Myers, Anal. Chem. 36, 532 (1964).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, R. B. Myers, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 19, 1187 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Parker, W. G.

H. G. Wolfhard, W. G. Parker, in Fifth International Symposium on Combustion (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1955), p. 718.
[CrossRef]

W. G. Parker, H. G. Wolfhard, in Fourth International Symposium on Combustion (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1953), p. 420.
[CrossRef]

Pickett, E. E.

E. E. Pickett, S. R. Koirtyohann, Spectrochim. Acta 22B, 235 (1968).

Slavin, W.

W. Slavin, Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 9 (1967).

Willis, J. B.

M. D. Amos, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1325 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wolfhard, H. G.

W. G. Parker, H. G. Wolfhard, in Fourth International Symposium on Combustion (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1953), p. 420.
[CrossRef]

H. G. Wolfhard, W. G. Parker, in Fifth International Symposium on Combustion (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1955), p. 718.
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (4)

V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, R. H. Curry, R. B. Myers, Anal. Chem. 36, 532 (1964).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 35, 910 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. P. D’Silva, R. N. Kiniseley, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 36, 1287 (1964).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, D. W. Golightly, Anal. Chem. 39, 466 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

D. C. Maining, L. Capacho-Delgado, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

R. Mavrodineanu, Appl. Spectrosc. 14, 17 (1960).

Atomic Absorption Newsletter (1)

W. Slavin, Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 9 (1967).

Nature (1)

J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta (4)

M. D. Amos, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1325 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Pickett, S. R. Koirtyohann, Spectrochim. Acta 22B, 235 (1968).

V. A. Fassel, R. H. Curry, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 18, 1127 (1962).

V. A. Fassel, R. B. Myers, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 19, 1187 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. H. Curry, Ph.D. thesis, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa, 1962 (unpublished).

V. A. Fassel, Paper No. 85, 18th Annual Mid-America Symposium on Spectroscopy, Chicago, Illinois, May 1967.

V. A. Fassel, D. A. Becker, Paper No. 66, Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, XIII, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, June 1967.

R. Herrmann, C. T. J. Alkemade, Chemical Analysis by Flame Photometry (Interscience, New York, 1963).

M. D. Amos, Paper No. 67, Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, XIII, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, June 1967.

W. G. Parker, H. G. Wolfhard, in Fourth International Symposium on Combustion (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1953), p. 420.
[CrossRef]

H. G. Wolfhard, W. G. Parker, in Fifth International Symposium on Combustion (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1955), p. 718.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of total consumption burner (Jarrell-Ash Company 82–341) used for PANT burner component.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PANT burner system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the background spectrum of a turbulent C2H2–N2O diffusion flame with the background spectrum emitted from the interconal zone of a PANT flame. Both tracings were recorded at identical instrumental settings.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the schlieren pattern of a turbulent C2H2–N2O diffusion flame (Beckman 4050 burner) (a) with the schlieren pattern of a PANT flame (b). The flames were operated under normal conditions with ethanol being aspirated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Replicate tracing of Ca (0.04 μg/ml) emission at 4226 Å from the PANT flame interconal zone.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of phosphoric acid on alkaline earth emission in the PANT flame.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of Emission Detection Limits for Several Flames

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