Abstract

Premixed hydrocarbon–air flames invariably show two separate reaction zones. In the primary zone, the combustible gas mixture burns principally to carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and water, and in the outer mantle, or secondary diffusion flame, the hot gases burn with atmospheric oxygen to carbon dioxide and water. Teclu [ J. Prakt. Chem. 44, 246 ( 1891)] and Smithells and Ingle [ Trans. Chem. Soc. 61, 204 ( 1892)] independently demonstrated the existence of these two zones in various premixed hydrocarbon–air flames, using the flame separator. This device consists of a wide glass or silica tube fitted over the bunsen type burner to form an extension above the inner burner port. The primary combustion then occurs at the inner burner port, while the pale blue secondary diffusion flame is maintained at the top of the outer glass tube. An alternative method of separation of premixed hydrocarbon–air flames consists of sheathing the flame with an inert gas to lift off or separate the secondary diffuson zone. The interconal zones of flames separated by these methods are extended in length and exhibit very low radiative background. The interconal zone also contains the hottest part of the flame, and can be viewed without interference from radiation produced in a secondary diffusion zone that would normally surround it in separated flames. It is the hot interconal zone of premixed flames that is most frequently employed in analytical flame photometry, because it is in this region that the greatest population of atoms occurs when elements are introduced into the flame by nebulization of solutions of their salts. Thus, separated flames may be employed with advantage in thermal emission, atomic absorption, and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. This paper describes the separation of the air–acetylene and nitrous oxide–acetylene flames, and some applications of these flames in analytical flame spectroscopy.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Mavrodineanu, H. Boiteux, Flame Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 168.
  2. G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 1011 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Talanta 15, 199 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Fuwa, B. L. Vallee, Anal. Chem. 35, 942 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. R. Koirtyohann, C. Feldman, in Developments in Applied Spectroscopy, J. E. Forrete, ed. (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 3.
  6. S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, Anal. Chem. 37, 601 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. V. Ramakrishna, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 20 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 429 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 759 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. S. Poluektov, R. A. Vitkun, Zh. Anal. Chem. 18, 37 (1963); Zh. Anal. Chem. 19, 937 (1964).
  11. J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 789 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, 18th Mid-American Symposium on Spectroscopy, Chicago, May 1967.
  14. T. S. West, X. K. Williams, Anal. Chim. Acta, in press, 1968.
  15. G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta, in press (1968).
  16. R. S. Hobbs, G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, T. S. West, Talanta, in the press (1968).
  17. R. M. Dagnall, T. S. West, P. Young, Talanta 13, 803 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 269 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst, in press (1968).

1968

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Talanta 15, 199 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 1011 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Ramakrishna, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 20 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 429 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 759 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 789 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

R. M. Dagnall, T. S. West, P. Young, Talanta 13, 803 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 269 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, Anal. Chem. 37, 601 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963

K. Fuwa, B. L. Vallee, Anal. Chem. 35, 942 (1963).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Poluektov, R. A. Vitkun, Zh. Anal. Chem. 18, 37 (1963); Zh. Anal. Chem. 19, 937 (1964).

Boiteux, H.

R. Mavrodineanu, H. Boiteux, Flame Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 168.

Dagnall, R. M.

R. M. Dagnall, T. S. West, P. Young, Talanta 13, 803 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 269 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, C.

S. R. Koirtyohann, C. Feldman, in Developments in Applied Spectroscopy, J. E. Forrete, ed. (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 3.

Fuwa, K.

K. Fuwa, B. L. Vallee, Anal. Chem. 35, 942 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hingle, D. N.

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Talanta 15, 199 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 759 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst, in press (1968).

Hobbs, R. S.

R. S. Hobbs, G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, T. S. West, Talanta, in the press (1968).

Kirkbright, G. F.

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Talanta 15, 199 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 1011 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 789 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 759 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta, in press (1968).

R. S. Hobbs, G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, T. S. West, Talanta, in the press (1968).

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst, in press (1968).

Koirtyohann, S. R.

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, Anal. Chem. 37, 601 (1965).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Koirtyohann, C. Feldman, in Developments in Applied Spectroscopy, J. E. Forrete, ed. (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 3.

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, 18th Mid-American Symposium on Spectroscopy, Chicago, May 1967.

Mavrodineanu, R.

R. Mavrodineanu, H. Boiteux, Flame Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 168.

McGee, W. W.

W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 429 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M. K.

G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 789 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickett, E. E.

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, Anal. Chem. 37, 601 (1965).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, 18th Mid-American Symposium on Spectroscopy, Chicago, May 1967.

Poluektov, N. S.

N. S. Poluektov, R. A. Vitkun, Zh. Anal. Chem. 18, 37 (1963); Zh. Anal. Chem. 19, 937 (1964).

Ramakrishna, T. V.

T. V. Ramakrishna, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 20 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. W.

T. V. Ramakrishna, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 20 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, M.

R. S. Hobbs, G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, T. S. West, Talanta, in the press (1968).

Semb, A.

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 1011 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta, in press (1968).

Thompson, K. C.

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 269 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, B. L.

K. Fuwa, B. L. Vallee, Anal. Chem. 35, 942 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Vitkun, R. A.

N. S. Poluektov, R. A. Vitkun, Zh. Anal. Chem. 18, 37 (1963); Zh. Anal. Chem. 19, 937 (1964).

West, P. W.

T. V. Ramakrishna, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 20 (1967).
[CrossRef]

West, T. S.

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Talanta 15, 199 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 1011 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 759 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 789 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 269 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Dagnall, T. S. West, P. Young, Talanta 13, 803 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst, in press (1968).

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta, in press (1968).

R. S. Hobbs, G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, T. S. West, Talanta, in the press (1968).

T. S. West, X. K. Williams, Anal. Chim. Acta, in press, 1968.

Williams, X. K.

T. S. West, X. K. Williams, Anal. Chim. Acta, in press, 1968.

Willis, J. B.

J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 429 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Young, P.

R. M. Dagnall, T. S. West, P. Young, Talanta 13, 803 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

K. Fuwa, B. L. Vallee, Anal. Chem. 35, 942 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, Anal. Chem. 37, 601 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

T. V. Ramakrishna, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 20 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 429 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 269 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Analyst

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 759 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Talanta

G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 789 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Dagnall, T. S. West, P. Young, Talanta 13, 803 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 1011 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Talanta 15, 199 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zh. Anal. Chem.

N. S. Poluektov, R. A. Vitkun, Zh. Anal. Chem. 18, 37 (1963); Zh. Anal. Chem. 19, 937 (1964).

Other

S. R. Koirtyohann, C. Feldman, in Developments in Applied Spectroscopy, J. E. Forrete, ed. (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 3.

R. Mavrodineanu, H. Boiteux, Flame Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), p. 168.

D. N. Hingle, G. F. Kirkbright, T. S. West, Analyst, in press (1968).

S. R. Koirtyohann, E. E. Pickett, 18th Mid-American Symposium on Spectroscopy, Chicago, May 1967.

T. S. West, X. K. Williams, Anal. Chim. Acta, in press, 1968.

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Talanta, in press (1968).

R. S. Hobbs, G. F. Kirkbright, M. Sargent, T. S. West, Talanta, in the press (1968).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Burner arrangement for separated air–acetylene flame employing silica separator tube. (b) Burner arrangement for separated air–acetylene flame employing nitrogen shielding gas.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Background emission from unseparated (A) and separated (B) air–acetylene flame. The ordinate of (A) should be multiplied by 15 to compare absolute intensities. The effect of decreased fuel flow rate on emission from separated flame is shown by broken line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Burner assembly employed for atomic absorption spectroscopy in the long path separated air–acetylene flame.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Burner assembly for separated nitrous oxide–acetylene flame.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Background emission spectrum of unseparated (A) and separated (B) nitrous oxide–acetylene flame.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Background emission from OH in fuel rich unseparated nitrous oxide–acetylene flame between 3050 Å and 3200 Å. (b) Emission spectrum from separated fuel rich nitrous oxide–acetylene flame in same region under same conditions, 100-ppm molybdenum solution nebulized.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Burner assembly for argon or nitrogen shielded 5 cm nitrous oxide–acetylene flame.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Atomic Absorption Sensitivities in Long Path Separated Air-Acetylene Flame

Tables Icon

Table II Sensitivities Obtained in Separated N2O–Acetylene Flame

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