Abstract

An account is given of the history of the development of high temperature flames for the atomic absorption measurement of metals forming refractory oxides. The principles governing the design of premix burners for such flames, and the relative merits of different types of nebulizer burner systems are described. After a brief account of the structure and emission characteristics of the premixed oxygen–acetylene and nitrous oxide–acetylene flames, the scope and limitations of the latter flame in chemical analysis are discussed.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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1968 (8)

E. E. Pickett, S. R. Koirtyohann, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 235 (1968).

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Spectrosc. Lett. 1, 97 (1968).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, Spectrosc. Lett. 1, 95 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. Katz, Amer. Mineral. 53, 283 (1968).

J. C. Van Loon, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 7, 3 (1968).

A. M. Bond, T. A. O’Donnell, Anal. Chem., 40, 560 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. Bader, H. Brandenberger, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 7, 1 (1968).

L. Wilson, Anal. Chim. Acta 40, 503 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (22)

F. R. Hartley, A. S. Inglis, Analyst 92, 622 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. Druckman, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 113 (1967).

D. L. Bokowski, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 97 (1967).

H. D. Fleming, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 207 (1967).

J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 23A, 811 (1967).

W. Slavin, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 9 (1967).

P. Gray, R. Mackinven, D. B. Smith, Combustion and Flame 11, 109 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Ramírez-Munoz, M. E. Roth, Flame Notes (Beckman) 2, 18 (1967).

G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 789 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Bowman, J. B. Willis, Anal. Chem. 39, 1210 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirinunen, O. Lindsjö, Chemist-Analyst 56, 25, 76, (1967).

J. J. McAuliffe, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 69 (1967).

J. B. Headridge, D. P. Hubbard, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 151 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mostyn, A. F. Cunningham, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 86 (1967).

D. Myers, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 89 (1967).

J. B. Tyler, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 14 (1967).

T. Kumumaru, Y. Otari, Y. Yamamoto, Bull. Soc. Chem. Japan 40, 429 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Kirkbright, A. M. Smith, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 411 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. Capacho-Delgado, D. C. Manning, Analyst 92, 553 (1967).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37,12, 156 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jaworowski, R. P. Weberling, D. J. Bracco, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 284 (1967).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Ramakrishna, P. W. West, J. W. Robinson, Anal. Chim. Acta 39, 81 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (15)

D. C. Manning, L. Capacho-Delgado, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. Capacho-Delgado, D. C. Manning, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5, 1 (1966).

G. F. Kirkbright, A. M. Smith, T. S. West, Analyst 91, 700 (1966).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Analyst 91, 705 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. Slavin, A. Venghiattis, D. C. Manning, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5, 84 (1966).

J. R. Deily, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5, 119 (1966).

V. A. Fassel, V. G. Mossotti, W. E. L. Grossman, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 347 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Amos, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 22,1325, 2128 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. Capacho-Delgado, D. C. Manning, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Adams, W. O. Passmore, Anal. Chem. 38, 630 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Skogerboe, A. T. Heybey, G. H. Morrison, Anal. Chem. 38, 1821 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wendt, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 38, 337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Friend, A. J. Diefenderfer, Anal. Chem. 38, 1763 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Goleb, Anal. Chim. Acta 34, 135 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. Slavin, Appl. Spectrosc. 20, 281 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (5)

M. D. Amos, P. E. Thomas, Anal. Chim. Acta 32, 139 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 721 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Manning, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 4, 267 (1965); Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5,63, 127 (1966); Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 35 (1967).

J. W. Armitage, P. Gray, Combustion and Flame 9, 173 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

R. Püschel, L. Simon, R. Herrmann, Optik 21, 441 (1964).

J. A. Goleb, Y. Yokoyama, Anal. Chim. Acta 30, 213 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (6)

J. A. Goleb, J. K. Brody, Anal. Chim. Acta 28, 457 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 35, 910 (1963); Anal. Chem. 36, 1287 (1964).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fassel, V. G. Mossotti, Anal. Chem. 35, 252 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Winefordner, C. T. Mansfield, T. J. Vickers, Anal. Chem. 35, 1607 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Skogerboe, R. A. Woodriff, Anal. Chem. 35, 1977 (1963).
[CrossRef]

W. Slavin, D. C. Manning, Anal. Chem. 35, 253 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (3)

J. E. Allan, Spectrochim. Acta 18, 259 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Willis, Anal. Chem. 34, 614 (1962).
[CrossRef]

V. C. O. Schüler, A. V. Jansen, J. S. African Inst. Mining Met. 790 (1962).

1961 (3)

J. W. Robinson, Anal. Chem. 33,1067, 1226 (1961).
[CrossRef]

B. V. L’vov, Spectrochim. Acta 17, 761 (1961).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Gatehouse, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 17, 710 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (4)

D. J. David, Nature 187, 1109 (1960); Analyst 86, 730 (1961).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Gatehouse, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 16, 602 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Robinson, Anal. Chim. Acta 23, 458 (1960).

O. E. Clinton, Spectrochim. Acta 16, 985 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (3)

B. J. Russell, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 15, 883 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Foster, D. N. Hume, Anal. Chem. 31,2028, 2033 (1959).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Baker, B. L. Vallee, Anal. Chem. 31, 2036 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (3)

J. B. Conway, A. V. Grosse, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 2972 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Allan, Analyst 83, 466 (1958).
[CrossRef]

D. J. David, Analyst 83, 655 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

B. J. Russell, J. P. Shelton, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 317 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 7, 108 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

J. B. Conway, R. H. Wilson, A. V. Grosse, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 499 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

N. Thomas, A. G. Gaydon, L. Brewer, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 369 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

E. Bartholomé, Z. Elektrochem. 53, 191 (1949); Z. Elektrochem. 54, 169 (1950).

1933 (2)

B. Lewis, H. Seaman, G. W. Jones, J. Franklin Inst. 215, 149 (1933).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Lurie, G. W. Sherman, Ind. Eng. Chem. 25, 404 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

G. W. Jones, B. Lewis, H. Seaman, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 53, 3992 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

F. Henning, C. Tingwaldt, Z. Physik 48, 805 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Adams, P. B.

P. B. Adams, W. O. Passmore, Anal. Chem. 38, 630 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ahrens, L. H.

L. R. P. Butler, L. H. Ahrens, A. Strasheim, Proceedings Thirteenth Colloquim Spectroscopium Internationale (Hilger, London, 1968), and personal communication.

Allan, J. E.

J. E. Allan, Spectrochim. Acta 18, 259 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Allan, Analyst 83, 466 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Allan, paper presented at Fourth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Canberra, 1963;a summary of the Conference appeared in Nature 200, 319 (1963).

Amos, M. D.

M. D. Amos, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 22,1325, 2128 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Amos, P. E. Thomas, Anal. Chim. Acta 32, 139 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. W.

J. W. Armitage, P. Gray, Combustion and Flame 9, 173 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, H. Brandenberger, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 7, 1 (1968).

Baker, M. R.

M. R. Baker, B. L. Vallee, Anal. Chem. 31, 2036 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bartholomé, E.

E. Bartholomé, Z. Elektrochem. 53, 191 (1949); Z. Elektrochem. 54, 169 (1950).

Becker, D. A.

D. A. Becker, V. A. Fassel, Institute for Atomic Research, Iowa State University, personal communication.

Boiteux, H.

R. Mavrodineanu, H. Boiteux, Flame Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965).

Bokowski, D. L.

D. L. Bokowski, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 97 (1967).

Bond, A. M.

A. M. Bond, T. A. O’Donnell, Anal. Chem., 40, 560 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Bond, J. B. Willis, unpublished work.

Bowditch, D. C.

D. C. Bowditch, Australian Mineral Development Laboratories Bulletin, April1966, p. 19.

Bowman, J. A.

J. A. Bowman, J. B. Willis, Anal. Chem. 39, 1210 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bracco, D. J.

R. J. Jaworowski, R. P. Weberling, D. J. Bracco, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 284 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Brandenberger, H.

H. Bader, H. Brandenberger, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 7, 1 (1968).

Brewer, L.

N. Thomas, A. G. Gaydon, L. Brewer, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 369 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Brody, J. K.

J. A. Goleb, J. K. Brody, Anal. Chim. Acta 28, 457 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Butler, L. R. P.

L. R. P. Butler, L. H. Ahrens, A. Strasheim, Proceedings Thirteenth Colloquim Spectroscopium Internationale (Hilger, London, 1968), and personal communication.

Capacho-Delgado, L.

L. Capacho-Delgado, D. C. Manning, Analyst 92, 553 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Manning, L. Capacho-Delgado, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. Capacho-Delgado, D. C. Manning, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. Capacho-Delgado, D. C. Manning, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5, 1 (1966).

Chakrabarti, C. L.

F. B. Dowling, C. L. Chakrabarti, G. R. Lyles, Anal. Chim. Acta 28, 392; Anal. Chim. Acta 29, 489 (1963).

Clinton, O. E.

O. E. Clinton, Spectrochim. Acta 16, 985 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Conway, J. B.

J. B. Conway, A. V. Grosse, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 2972 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Conway, R. H. Wilson, A. V. Grosse, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 499 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Cottrell, T. L.

T. L. Cottrell, The Strength of Chemical Bonds (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1958).

Cowley, T. G.

T. G. Cowley, V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, Institute for Atomic Research, Iowa State University, unpublished work.

Cunningham, A. F.

R. A. Mostyn, A. F. Cunningham, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 86 (1967).

D’Silva, A. P.

R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 35, 910 (1963); Anal. Chem. 36, 1287 (1964).
[CrossRef]

David, D. J.

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J. A. Fiorino, R. N. Kniseley, V. A. Fassel, Spectrochim. Acta, to be published in Part B, 1968

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J. B. Headridge, D. P. Hubbard, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 151 (1967).
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V. A. Fassel, V. G. Mossotti, W. E. L. Grossman, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 347 (1966).
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E. E. Pickett, S. R. Koirtyohann, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 235 (1968).

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F. B. Dowling, C. L. Chakrabarti, G. R. Lyles, Anal. Chim. Acta 28, 392; Anal. Chim. Acta 29, 489 (1963).

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V. A. Fassel, V. G. Mossotti, W. E. L. Grossman, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 347 (1966).
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V. A. Fassel, V. G. Mossotti, Anal. Chem. 35, 252 (1963).
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A. M. Bond, T. A. O’Donnell, Anal. Chem., 40, 560 (1968).
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T. Kumumaru, Y. Otari, Y. Yamamoto, Bull. Soc. Chem. Japan 40, 429 (1967).
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E. E. Pickett, S. R. Koirtyohann, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 235 (1968).

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T. V. Ramakrishna, P. W. West, J. W. Robinson, Anal. Chim. Acta 39, 81 (1967).
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J. Ramírez-Munoz, M. E. Roth, Flame Notes (Beckman) 2, 18 (1967).

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S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37,12, 156 (1967).
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J. Ramírez-Munoz, M. E. Roth, Flame Notes (Beckman) 2, 18 (1967).

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S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37,12, 156 (1967).
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V. C. O. Schüler, A. V. Jansen, J. S. African Inst. Mining Met. 790 (1962).

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G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Spectrosc. Lett. 1, 97 (1968).
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B. J. Russell, J. P. Shelton, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 317 (1957).
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H. H. Lurie, G. W. Sherman, Ind. Eng. Chem. 25, 404 (1933).
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R. Püschel, L. Simon, R. Herrmann, Optik 21, 441 (1964).

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R. K. Skogerboe, A. T. Heybey, G. H. Morrison, Anal. Chem. 38, 1821 (1966).
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W. Slavin, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 9 (1967).

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G. F. Kirkbright, A. M. Smith, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 411 (1967).
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P. Gray, R. Mackinven, D. B. Smith, Combustion and Flame 11, 109 (1967).
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W. Snelleman, A Flame as a Standard of Temperature (Bronder-offset, Rotterdam, 1965), (Thesis, Utrecht, 1965).

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J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 721 (1965).
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N. Thomas, A. G. Gaydon, L. Brewer, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 369 (1952).
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M. D. Amos, P. E. Thomas, Anal. Chim. Acta 32, 139 (1965).
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F. Henning, C. Tingwaldt, Z. Physik 48, 805 (1928).
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J. B. Tyler, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 14 (1967).

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J. C. Van Loon, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 7, 3 (1968).

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W. Slavin, A. Venghiattis, D. C. Manning, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5, 84 (1966).

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J. D. Winefordner, C. T. Mansfield, T. J. Vickers, Anal. Chem. 35, 1607 (1963).
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B. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames, and Explosions of Gases (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961).

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J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 721 (1965).
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B. M. Gatehouse, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 16, 602 (1960).
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B. J. Russell, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 15, 883 (1959).
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B. J. Russell, J. P. Shelton, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 317 (1957).
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A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 7, 108 (1955).
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A. Walsh, Proceedings Tenth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, E. R. Lippincott, M. Margoshes, Eds. (Spartan Books, Washington, 1963).

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R. H. Wendt, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 38, 337 (1966).
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S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37,12, 156 (1967).
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T. V. Ramakrishna, P. W. West, J. W. Robinson, Anal. Chim. Acta 39, 81 (1967).
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G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Spectrosc. Lett. 1, 97 (1968).
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G. F. Kirkbright, A. M. Smith, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 411 (1967).
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G. F. Kirkbright, A. M. Smith, T. S. West, Analyst 91, 700 (1966).
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J. B. Conway, R. H. Wilson, A. V. Grosse, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 499 (1953).
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J. D. Winefordner, C. T. Mansfield, T. J. Vickers, Anal. Chem. 35, 1607 (1963).
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A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames, Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1960).

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T. Kumumaru, Y. Otari, Y. Yamamoto, Bull. Soc. Chem. Japan 40, 429 (1967).
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J. A. Goleb, Y. Yokoyama, Anal. Chim. Acta 30, 213 (1964).
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Amer. Mineral. (1)

A. Katz, Amer. Mineral. 53, 283 (1968).

Anal. Chem. (15)

A. M. Bond, T. A. O’Donnell, Anal. Chem., 40, 560 (1968).
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R. H. Wendt, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 38, 337 (1966).
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K. E. Friend, A. J. Diefenderfer, Anal. Chem. 38, 1763 (1966).
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J. W. Robinson, Anal. Chem. 33,1067, 1226 (1961).
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J. B. Willis, Anal. Chem. 34, 614 (1962).
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V. A. Fassel, V. G. Mossotti, Anal. Chem. 35, 252 (1963).
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J. D. Winefordner, C. T. Mansfield, T. J. Vickers, Anal. Chem. 35, 1607 (1963).
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R. N. Kniseley, A. P. D’Silva, V. A. Fassel, Anal. Chem. 35, 910 (1963); Anal. Chem. 36, 1287 (1964).
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W. H. Foster, D. N. Hume, Anal. Chem. 31,2028, 2033 (1959).
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P. B. Adams, W. O. Passmore, Anal. Chem. 38, 630 (1966).
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R. K. Skogerboe, A. T. Heybey, G. H. Morrison, Anal. Chem. 38, 1821 (1966).
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M. R. Baker, B. L. Vallee, Anal. Chem. 31, 2036 (1959).
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W. Slavin, D. C. Manning, Anal. Chem. 35, 253 (1963).
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R. K. Skogerboe, R. A. Woodriff, Anal. Chem. 35, 1977 (1963).
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J. A. Bowman, J. B. Willis, Anal. Chem. 39, 1210 (1967).
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Anal. Chim. Acta (12)

F. B. Dowling, C. L. Chakrabarti, G. R. Lyles, Anal. Chim. Acta 28, 392; Anal. Chim. Acta 29, 489 (1963).

J. B. Headridge, D. P. Hubbard, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 151 (1967).
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M. D. Amos, P. E. Thomas, Anal. Chim. Acta 32, 139 (1965).
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J. W. Robinson, Anal. Chim. Acta 23, 458 (1960).

J. A. Goleb, J. K. Brody, Anal. Chim. Acta 28, 457 (1963).
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J. A. Goleb, Y. Yokoyama, Anal. Chim. Acta 30, 213 (1964).
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J. A. Goleb, Anal. Chim. Acta 34, 135 (1966).
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S. L. Sachdev, J. W. Robinson, P. W. West, Anal. Chim. Acta 37,12, 156 (1967).
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R. J. Jaworowski, R. P. Weberling, D. J. Bracco, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 284 (1967).
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T. V. Ramakrishna, P. W. West, J. W. Robinson, Anal. Chim. Acta 39, 81 (1967).
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D. C. Manning, L. Capacho-Delgado, Anal. Chim. Acta 36, 312 (1966).
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L. Wilson, Anal. Chim. Acta 40, 503 (1968).
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Analyst (7)

G. F. Kirkbright, A. M. Smith, T. S. West, Analyst 91, 700 (1966).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Analyst 91, 705 (1966).
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G. F. Kirkbright, A. M. Smith, T. S. West, Analyst 92, 411 (1967).
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L. Capacho-Delgado, D. C. Manning, Analyst 92, 553 (1967).
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F. R. Hartley, A. S. Inglis, Analyst 92, 622 (1967).
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J. E. Allan, Analyst 83, 466 (1958).
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D. J. David, Analyst 83, 655 (1958).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Bull. Soc. Chem. Japan (1)

T. Kumumaru, Y. Otari, Y. Yamamoto, Bull. Soc. Chem. Japan 40, 429 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Chemist-Analyst (1)

J. Kirinunen, O. Lindsjö, Chemist-Analyst 56, 25, 76, (1967).

Combustion and Flame (2)

P. Gray, R. Mackinven, D. B. Smith, Combustion and Flame 11, 109 (1967).
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J. W. Armitage, P. Gray, Combustion and Flame 9, 173 (1965).
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Flame Notes (Beckman) (1)

J. Ramírez-Munoz, M. E. Roth, Flame Notes (Beckman) 2, 18 (1967).

Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

H. H. Lurie, G. W. Sherman, Ind. Eng. Chem. 25, 404 (1933).
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J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (3)

J. B. Conway, A. V. Grosse, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 2972 (1958).
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J. B. Conway, R. H. Wilson, A. V. Grosse, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 499 (1953).
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G. W. Jones, B. Lewis, H. Seaman, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 53, 3992 (1931).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

N. Thomas, A. G. Gaydon, L. Brewer, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 369 (1952).
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J. Franklin Inst. (1)

B. Lewis, H. Seaman, G. W. Jones, J. Franklin Inst. 215, 149 (1933).
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J. S. African Inst. Mining Met. (1)

V. C. O. Schüler, A. V. Jansen, J. S. African Inst. Mining Met. 790 (1962).

Nature (2)

D. J. David, Nature 187, 1109 (1960); Analyst 86, 730 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Willis, Nature 207, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

R. Püschel, L. Simon, R. Herrmann, Optik 21, 441 (1964).

Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter (13)

W. Slavin, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 9 (1967).

D. C. Manning, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 4, 267 (1965); Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5,63, 127 (1966); Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 35 (1967).

W. Slavin, A. Venghiattis, D. C. Manning, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5, 84 (1966).

J. R. Deily, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5, 119 (1966).

R. A. Mostyn, A. F. Cunningham, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 86 (1967).

D. Myers, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 89 (1967).

L. Capacho-Delgado, D. C. Manning, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 5, 1 (1966).

J. B. Tyler, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 14 (1967).

J. J. McAuliffe, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 69 (1967).

J. C. Van Loon, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 7, 3 (1968).

D. Druckman, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 113 (1967).

D. L. Bokowski, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 6, 97 (1967).

H. Bader, H. Brandenberger, Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Newsletter 7, 1 (1968).

Spectrochim. Acta (15)

H. D. Fleming, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 207 (1967).

E. E. Pickett, S. R. Koirtyohann, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 235 (1968).

V. A. Fassel, V. G. Mossotti, W. E. L. Grossman, R. N. Kniseley, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 347 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 721 (1965).
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J. E. Allan, Spectrochim. Acta 18, 259 (1962).
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L. Capacho-Delgado, D. C. Manning, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Amos, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 22,1325, 2128 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 23A, 811 (1967).

O. E. Clinton, Spectrochim. Acta 16, 985 (1960).
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B. M. Gatehouse, J. B. Willis, Spectrochim. Acta 17, 710 (1961).
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A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 7, 108 (1955).
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B. J. Russell, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 15, 883 (1959).
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B. M. Gatehouse, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 16, 602 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Spectrosc. Lett. (2)

G. F. Kirkbright, A. Semb, T. S. West, Spectrosc. Lett. 1, 97 (1968).
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V. A. Fassel, Spectrosc. Lett. 1, 95 (1968).
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Talanta (1)

G. F. Kirkbright, M. K. Peters, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 789 (1967).
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Z. Elektrochem. (1)

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Other (18)

W. Snelleman, A Flame as a Standard of Temperature (Bronder-offset, Rotterdam, 1965), (Thesis, Utrecht, 1965).

J. B. Willis, unpublished work;J. B. Willis, J. O. Rasmuson, R. N. Kniseley, V. A. Fassel, Spectrochim. Acta, to be published.

L. R. P. Butler, L. H. Ahrens, A. Strasheim, Proceedings Thirteenth Colloquim Spectroscopium Internationale (Hilger, London, 1968), and personal communication.

W. G. Parker, H. G. Wolfhard, Proceedings Fourth International Symposium on Combustion (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland, 1952), p. 420; Proceedings Fifth International Symposium on Combustion (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1954), p. 718.

T. G. Cowley, V. A. Fassel, R. N. Kniseley, Institute for Atomic Research, Iowa State University, unpublished work.

D. C. Bowditch, Australian Mineral Development Laboratories Bulletin, April1966, p. 19.

A. Walsh, Proceedings Tenth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, E. R. Lippincott, M. Margoshes, Eds. (Spartan Books, Washington, 1963).

H. Lundegårdh, Die quantitative Spektralanalyse der Elemente (Fischer, Jena) Part I, 1929; Part II, 1934.

J. B. Willis, in Analytical Flame Spectroscopy, R. Mavrodineanu, Ed. (N. V. Philips, Eindhoven, 1968).

J. A. Fiorino, R. N. Kniseley, V. A. Fassel, Spectrochim. Acta, to be published in Part B, 1968

R. Mavrodineanu, H. Boiteux, Flame Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965).

J. E. Allan, paper presented at Fourth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Canberra, 1963;a summary of the Conference appeared in Nature 200, 319 (1963).

B. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames, and Explosions of Gases (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961).

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames, Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1960).

H. G. Wolfhard, Institute for Defense Analyses, Arlington, Va., personal communication.

A. M. Bond, J. B. Willis, unpublished work.

T. L. Cottrell, The Strength of Chemical Bonds (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1958).

D. A. Becker, V. A. Fassel, Institute for Atomic Research, Iowa State University, personal communication.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Degree of ionization, calculated by the Saha equation, for various metals at temperatures of 2200°C and 2950°C, assuming a total metal partial pressure of 10−6 atm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Characteristics of Premixed Flames of Interest in Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

Tables Icon

Table II Sensitivities and Limits of Detection for Metals Determined in the Nitrous Oxide-Acetylene Flame

Tables Icon

Table III Calculated and Measured Degrees of Ionization of Metals in the Nitrous Oxide-Acetylene Fllame

Metrics