Abstract

Since the spectrum of the resonance radiation from an atomic vapor consists only of those spectral lines that are absorbed by the vapor, resonance lamps can serve as monochromators for isolating these lines. The atomic vapor is produced by cathodic sputtering in a rare gas discharge or, in the case of elements with high vapor pressure at low temperatures, by indirect electrical heating of the appropriate metal. Alternatively, the resonance lines of an element can be isolated by allowing the spectrum of the element emitted by a dc operated atomic spectral lamp to pass through a pulsating cloud of atomic vapor of the same element produced by sputtering in a modulated discharge. The resonance lines are selectively modulated and produce a signal at the output of an ac detection system. Other lines in the spectrum produce no output signal since they are not absorbed by passage through the atomic vapor and are therefore not modulated. Atomic absorption spectrophotometers incorporating these two techniques for the isolation of resonance lines have been constructed and their performance studied.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 10, 513 (1905).
  2. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 23, 689 (1912).
  3. R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1934).
  4. B. J. Russell, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 15, 883(1959).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 721 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. M. Mansfield, C. Veillon, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 37, 1049 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, New Techniques for the Isolation and Detection of Atomic Resonance Lines, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.
  8. R. M. Lowe, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Improved Atomic Spectral Lamps for the Stimulation of Resonance Radiation, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.
  9. R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 551 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. Hultgren, L. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, K. K. Kelly, Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 247.
  11. J. V. Sullivan, A. B. Timms, P. A. Young, Bull. Australas. Inst. Min. Met. (in press).
  12. J. A. Bowman, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 465 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1843 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. S. Rawling, J. V. Sullivan, Trans. Inst. Min. Met. 76, C238 (1967).
  15. P. L. Boar, J. V. Sullivan, Fuel 46, 230 (1967).
  16. Ref. 15, p. 47.
  17. J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Application of Resonance Monochromators to the Simultaneous Determination of Several Elements, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.
  18. J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, Ottawa, Canada, 1967.
  19. J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 131 (1967).
  20. C. T. J. Alkemade, J. M. W. Milatz, Appl. Sci. Res. B4, 289 (1955).
  21. J. A. Bowman, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 205 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Application of Resonance Monochromators and Selective Modulators in Spectrophotometry, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

1967 (5)

B. S. Rawling, J. V. Sullivan, Trans. Inst. Min. Met. 76, C238 (1967).

P. L. Boar, J. V. Sullivan, Fuel 46, 230 (1967).

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 131 (1967).

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 551 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bowman, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 465 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (2)

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1843 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bowman, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 205 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (2)

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 721 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. M. Mansfield, C. Veillon, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 37, 1049 (1965).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

B. J. Russell, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 15, 883(1959).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

C. T. J. Alkemade, J. M. W. Milatz, Appl. Sci. Res. B4, 289 (1955).

1912 (1)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 23, 689 (1912).

1905 (1)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 10, 513 (1905).

Alkemade, C. T. J.

C. T. J. Alkemade, J. M. W. Milatz, Appl. Sci. Res. B4, 289 (1955).

Anderson, P. D.

R. Hultgren, L. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, K. K. Kelly, Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 247.

Boar, P. L.

P. L. Boar, J. V. Sullivan, Fuel 46, 230 (1967).

Bowman, J. A.

J. A. Bowman, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 465 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bowman, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 205 (1966).
[Crossref]

Dagnall, R. M.

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 551 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hultgren, R.

R. Hultgren, L. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, K. K. Kelly, Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 247.

Kelly, K. K.

R. Hultgren, L. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, K. K. Kelly, Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 247.

Lowe, R. M.

R. M. Lowe, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Improved Atomic Spectral Lamps for the Stimulation of Resonance Radiation, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

Mansfield, J. M.

J. M. Mansfield, C. Veillon, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 37, 1049 (1965).
[Crossref]

Milatz, J. M. W.

C. T. J. Alkemade, J. M. W. Milatz, Appl. Sci. Res. B4, 289 (1955).

Orr, L. L.

R. Hultgren, L. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, K. K. Kelly, Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 247.

Rawling, B. S.

B. S. Rawling, J. V. Sullivan, Trans. Inst. Min. Met. 76, C238 (1967).

Russell, B. J.

B. J. Russell, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 15, 883(1959).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, J. V.

B. S. Rawling, J. V. Sullivan, Trans. Inst. Min. Met. 76, C238 (1967).

P. L. Boar, J. V. Sullivan, Fuel 46, 230 (1967).

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 131 (1967).

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1843 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bowman, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 205 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 721 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. M. Lowe, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Improved Atomic Spectral Lamps for the Stimulation of Resonance Radiation, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, New Techniques for the Isolation and Detection of Atomic Resonance Lines, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

J. V. Sullivan, A. B. Timms, P. A. Young, Bull. Australas. Inst. Min. Met. (in press).

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, Ottawa, Canada, 1967.

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Application of Resonance Monochromators to the Simultaneous Determination of Several Elements, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Application of Resonance Monochromators and Selective Modulators in Spectrophotometry, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

Thompson, K. C.

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 551 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timms, A. B.

J. V. Sullivan, A. B. Timms, P. A. Young, Bull. Australas. Inst. Min. Met. (in press).

Veillon, C.

J. M. Mansfield, C. Veillon, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 37, 1049 (1965).
[Crossref]

Walsh, A.

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 131 (1967).

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1843 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bowman, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 205 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 721 (1965).
[Crossref]

B. J. Russell, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 15, 883(1959).
[Crossref]

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, New Techniques for the Isolation and Detection of Atomic Resonance Lines, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

R. M. Lowe, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Improved Atomic Spectral Lamps for the Stimulation of Resonance Radiation, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, Ottawa, Canada, 1967.

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Application of Resonance Monochromators to the Simultaneous Determination of Several Elements, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Application of Resonance Monochromators and Selective Modulators in Spectrophotometry, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

West, T. S.

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 551 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winefordner, J. D.

J. M. Mansfield, C. Veillon, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 37, 1049 (1965).
[Crossref]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 23, 689 (1912).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 10, 513 (1905).

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1934).

Young, P. A.

J. V. Sullivan, A. B. Timms, P. A. Young, Bull. Australas. Inst. Min. Met. (in press).

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. M. Mansfield, C. Veillon, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 37, 1049 (1965).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

J. A. Bowman, Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 465 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Sci. Res. (1)

C. T. J. Alkemade, J. M. W. Milatz, Appl. Sci. Res. B4, 289 (1955).

Fuel (1)

P. L. Boar, J. V. Sullivan, Fuel 46, 230 (1967).

Phil. Mag. (2)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 10, 513 (1905).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 23, 689 (1912).

Spectrochim. Acta (5)

B. J. Russell, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 15, 883(1959).
[Crossref]

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 721 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bowman, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 205 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 22, 1843 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Spectrochim. Acta 23B, 131 (1967).

Talanta (1)

R. M. Dagnall, K. C. Thompson, T. S. West, Talanta 14, 551 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trans. Inst. Min. Met. (1)

B. S. Rawling, J. V. Sullivan, Trans. Inst. Min. Met. 76, C238 (1967).

Other (9)

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Application of Resonance Monochromators and Selective Modulators in Spectrophotometry, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

Ref. 15, p. 47.

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Application of Resonance Monochromators to the Simultaneous Determination of Several Elements, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale, Ottawa, Canada, 1967.

R. Hultgren, L. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, K. K. Kelly, Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 247.

J. V. Sullivan, A. B. Timms, P. A. Young, Bull. Australas. Inst. Min. Met. (in press).

J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, New Techniques for the Isolation and Detection of Atomic Resonance Lines, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

R. M. Lowe, J. V. Sullivan, A. Walsh, Improved Atomic Spectral Lamps for the Stimulation of Resonance Radiation, Sixth Australian Spectroscopy Conference, Brisbane, 1967.

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1934).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical energy level diagram of low lying states for Group I elements, e.g., sodium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical energy level diagram of low lying states for Group II elements, e.g., magnesium.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical response curve of photomultiplier tube (HTV–R106).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical energy level diagram of low lying states for Group III elements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy level diagram showing low lying states for nickel.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram illustrating the experimental arrangement for the production of resonance radiation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram illustrating the electrode assembly of a high intensity lamp.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic diagram illustrating the electrode assembly of a high intensity lamp in which the metal atomic vapor is produced by electrical heating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram illustrating a resonance detector in which the metal atomic vapor is produced by cathodic sputtering.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic diagram illustrating a resonance detector in which the metal atomic vapor is produced by electrical heating.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic diagram of multichannel atomic absorption spectrophotometer employing resonance detectors.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic diagram of atomic absorption spectrophotometers for the simultaneous determination of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium in soils.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Schematic diagram of multichannel atomic absorption spectrophotometer permitting variation of absorption path length through flame.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Schematic diagram illustrating the principle of isolating atomic resonance lines by selective modulation with a pulsating atomic vapor produced by cathodic sputtering.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Spectra showing isolation of the nickel resonance line at 2320.03 Å by selective modulation. Lamp primary discharge: 30 mA. Lamp booster discharge: 400 mA. Modulator discharge: 20 mA.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Calibration curves illustrating the applications of the selective modulation technique to the determination of nickel. Spectral bandpass: 7 Å.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Schematic diagram of protein meter employing a selective modulator to isolate the magnesium resonance line at 2852 Å.

Tables (1)

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Table I Lines and Groups of Lines Isolated by Resonance Monochromators

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