Abstract

An experimental investigation of ir sky radiance and radiance fluctuations in the 8–13-μ atmospheric window is reported. Measurements were made with ground-based, filtered bolometer detector radiometers under clear sky and cirrus overcast conditions. Sky radiance was measured very close to the limb of the sun to permit detection of the solar aureole caused by forward scattering by cirrus ice crystals. Polarized sky radiance was found at large zenith angles and is attributed to scattering by cirrus of thermal emission from the earth. The radiance due to tropospheric water vapor is predicted by means of a radiation chart. Measurements of clear sky radiance exceeded that predicted by the chart in all but one case. The radiance of visible cirrus greatly exceeds the radiation chart prediction. Diffraction about cirrus cloud particles leads to a prediction of a solar aureole of a size that corresponds to the measured aureole. It is concluded that even a cirrus haze, which is quite difficult for an unaided, ground-based observer to detect, can cause an excess zenith radiance of 0.1 mW cm−2sr−1, which increases to twice this value at a zenith angle of 60°. Even thin but visible cirrus clouds can easily produce an excess zenith radiance of 1 mW cm−2sr−1, which increases by a factor 1.4 at a zenith angle of 60°.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Strong, J. Franklin Inst. 232, 1 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. D. Robinson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 73, 127 (1947).
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  3. J. Westphal, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 9 (Ser. 5), 357 (1964).
  4. H. J. Bolle, Final Rept. AF61(052)–488, AFCRL–64–567 II (AD 623 406)University of Munich (1965).
  5. G. D. Robinson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 37 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. B. Farmer, P. J. Key, Appl. Opt. 4, 1051 (1965).
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  7. H. Weickmann, Ber. Deut. Wetter. U. S. Zone 6, 61 (1949).
  8. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1960), p. 248.
  9. M. Minnaert, in The Sun, G. Kuiper, Ed. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953) pp. 102, 130.
  10. H. C. van de Hulst, in The Sun, G. Kuiper, Ed. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953), p. 246.
  11. A. Adel, E. S. Epstein, J. Meteorol. 16, 548 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation (Oxford University Press, London1964), p. 249.
  13. F. Möller, Nomogramme für den Reichswetterdienst, Reichsant für Wetterdienst (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1943), pp. 38–43.
  14. H. J. Bolle, F. Möller, W. Zdunkowski, Tech. Rept. No. 2, AF 61 (052)–488, AFCRL–63–680 (AD 416 497)University of Munich (1963).
  15. W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Deirmendjian, R. Clasen, W. Viezee, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 620 (1961).
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  17. D. Deirmendjian, Appl. Opt. 3, 187 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. W. Yates, J. H. Taylor, NRL Rept. 5433 (1960).
  19. W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (The University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), p. 104.
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    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Migeotte, L. Neven, J. Swensson, The Solar Spectrum from 2.8 to 23.7 Microns, University of Liege Final Rept., AF 61 (514)–432 (AD 210 043, 210 044) (1957).
  22. L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 7, 201 (1959).
  23. G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 5, 279 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 90 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. G. Stone, USAF Air Weather Service TR 105–130 (1957).
  26. F. F. Hall, Ph.D. Dissertation, UCLA (1967), also Douglas A/C Report DAC–61306.
  27. F. F. Hall, Appl. Opt. 3, 781 (1964).
    [CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1964 (3)

1961 (1)

1959 (2)

A. Adel, E. S. Epstein, J. Meteorol. 16, 548 (1959).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 7, 201 (1959).

1958 (1)

W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 90 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

G. D. Robinson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 37 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

H. Weickmann, Ber. Deut. Wetter. U. S. Zone 6, 61 (1949).

1947 (1)

G. D. Robinson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 73, 127 (1947).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

J. Strong, J. Franklin Inst. 232, 1 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Adel, A.

A. Adel, E. S. Epstein, J. Meteorol. 16, 548 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, H. J.

H. J. Bolle, Final Rept. AF61(052)–488, AFCRL–64–567 II (AD 623 406)University of Munich (1965).

H. J. Bolle, F. Möller, W. Zdunkowski, Tech. Rept. No. 2, AF 61 (052)–488, AFCRL–63–680 (AD 416 497)University of Munich (1963).

Bullrich, K.

K. Bullrich, in Advances in Geophysics, H. E. Landsberg, J. van Miegham Eds. (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 10.
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1960), p. 248.

Clasen, R.

Deirmendjian, D.

Epstein, E. S.

A. Adel, E. S. Epstein, J. Meteorol. 16, 548 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

Goody, R. M.

W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation (Oxford University Press, London1964), p. 249.

Gumprecht, R. O.

R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 90 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Hall, F. F.

F. F. Hall, Appl. Opt. 3, 781 (1964).
[CrossRef]

F. F. Hall, Ph.D. Dissertation, UCLA (1967), also Douglas A/C Report DAC–61306.

Key, P. J.

Kislovskii, L. D.

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 7, 201 (1959).

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (The University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), p. 104.

Migeotte, M.

M. Migeotte, L. Neven, J. Swensson, The Solar Spectrum from 2.8 to 23.7 Microns, University of Liege Final Rept., AF 61 (514)–432 (AD 210 043, 210 044) (1957).

Minnaert, M.

M. Minnaert, in The Sun, G. Kuiper, Ed. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953) pp. 102, 130.

Möller, F.

H. J. Bolle, F. Möller, W. Zdunkowski, Tech. Rept. No. 2, AF 61 (052)–488, AFCRL–63–680 (AD 416 497)University of Munich (1963).

F. Möller, Nomogramme für den Reichswetterdienst, Reichsant für Wetterdienst (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1943), pp. 38–43.

Neven, L.

M. Migeotte, L. Neven, J. Swensson, The Solar Spectrum from 2.8 to 23.7 Microns, University of Liege Final Rept., AF 61 (514)–432 (AD 210 043, 210 044) (1957).

Plass, G. N.

Roach, W. T.

W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, G. D.

G. D. Robinson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 37 (1950).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Robinson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 73, 127 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Sliepcevich, C. M.

R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 90 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R. G.

R. G. Stone, USAF Air Weather Service TR 105–130 (1957).

Strong, J.

J. Strong, J. Franklin Inst. 232, 1 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Swensson, J.

M. Migeotte, L. Neven, J. Swensson, The Solar Spectrum from 2.8 to 23.7 Microns, University of Liege Final Rept., AF 61 (514)–432 (AD 210 043, 210 044) (1957).

Taylor, J. H.

H. W. Yates, J. H. Taylor, NRL Rept. 5433 (1960).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, in The Sun, G. Kuiper, Ed. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953), p. 246.

Viezee, W.

Weickmann, H.

H. Weickmann, Ber. Deut. Wetter. U. S. Zone 6, 61 (1949).

Westphal, J.

J. Westphal, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 9 (Ser. 5), 357 (1964).

Yates, H. W.

H. W. Yates, J. H. Taylor, NRL Rept. 5433 (1960).

Zdunkowski, W.

H. J. Bolle, F. Möller, W. Zdunkowski, Tech. Rept. No. 2, AF 61 (052)–488, AFCRL–63–680 (AD 416 497)University of Munich (1963).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Ber. Deut. Wetter. U. S. Zone (1)

H. Weickmann, Ber. Deut. Wetter. U. S. Zone 6, 61 (1949).

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

J. Strong, J. Franklin Inst. 232, 1 (1941).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. (1)

A. Adel, E. S. Epstein, J. Meteorol. 16, 548 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. O. Gumprecht, C. M. Sliepcevich, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 90 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege (1)

J. Westphal, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 9 (Ser. 5), 357 (1964).

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 7, 201 (1959).

Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. (3)

W. T. Roach, R. M. Goody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Robinson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 73, 127 (1947).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Robinson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 37 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

H. W. Yates, J. H. Taylor, NRL Rept. 5433 (1960).

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (The University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1952), p. 104.

K. Bullrich, in Advances in Geophysics, H. E. Landsberg, J. van Miegham Eds. (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 10.
[CrossRef]

M. Migeotte, L. Neven, J. Swensson, The Solar Spectrum from 2.8 to 23.7 Microns, University of Liege Final Rept., AF 61 (514)–432 (AD 210 043, 210 044) (1957).

H. J. Bolle, Final Rept. AF61(052)–488, AFCRL–64–567 II (AD 623 406)University of Munich (1965).

R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation (Oxford University Press, London1964), p. 249.

F. Möller, Nomogramme für den Reichswetterdienst, Reichsant für Wetterdienst (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1943), pp. 38–43.

H. J. Bolle, F. Möller, W. Zdunkowski, Tech. Rept. No. 2, AF 61 (052)–488, AFCRL–63–680 (AD 416 497)University of Munich (1963).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1960), p. 248.

M. Minnaert, in The Sun, G. Kuiper, Ed. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953) pp. 102, 130.

H. C. van de Hulst, in The Sun, G. Kuiper, Ed. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953), p. 246.

R. G. Stone, USAF Air Weather Service TR 105–130 (1957).

F. F. Hall, Ph.D. Dissertation, UCLA (1967), also Douglas A/C Report DAC–61306.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmissivity of the radiometer spectral filters. Channel A was filtered to record radiance in the 8.0–13.5-μ window, while Channel B monitored 9.6-μ band ozone radiance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simplified radiation chart for the 8.0–13.5-μ window. The construction of the chart is based on that of Bolle, Möller, and Zdunkowski (1963). The dashed line encloses an area representative of zenith sky radiance observed from the ground tinder typical clear conditions in southern California.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sky radiance results, 3 January 1966.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sky radiance results, 6 January 1966.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sky radiance results, 2 January 1966.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sky radiance results, 4 January 1966.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sky radiance results, 7 January 1966.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sky radiance results, 20 September 1966.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Recordings of solar transits on 6 January 1966 with the 61-cm radiometer. Deflections have been normalized to the same value at the center of the sun.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative scattered intensity i(θ) vs scattering angle θ. The measured, normalized aureole radiance at 8.0–13.5-μ is indicated by the flagged points and compared vs scattering angle with the zero-order diffraction diagram for 50-μ radius spheres.

Equations (2)

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M R = 3.912 / k ext .
= ( 1 - ω ) ( 1 - t ) = 0.79 × 0.35 = 0.28.

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