Abstract

The brightness and the spectral distribution of the zenith sky in the 5300–6600 Å region were measured during the eclipse of 12 November 1966 at Quehua, Bolivia. At totality, the brightness at 5600 Å was observed to be 8.4 kR/Å, three orders of magnitude lower than the 2.2 × 104 kR/Å for the normal day sky. The spectral distribution is presented here in terms of a single parameter, the effective blackbody temperature for determining the predominance of secondary scattering during midtotality. The effective temperature was observed to change from 9100 °K for normal day sky to 11,100°K during totality.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. F. Chambers, The Story of Eclipses (D. Appleton and Co., New York, 1902).
  2. S. A. Mitchell, Eclipses of the Sun (Columbia University Press, New York, 1951).
  3. E. Halley, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 20, 245 (1715).
  4. W. E. Sharp, J. W. F. Lloyd, S. M. Silverman, Appl. Opt. 5, 787 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thrope, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 180A, 363 (1889).
  6. R. A. Richardson, E. O. Hulbert, J. Geophys. Res. 54, 229 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Koomen, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, in The Airglow and the Aurorae, A. Dalgarno, E. B. Armstrong, Eds. (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1956).
  8. J. F. Noxon, T. P. Markham, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6059 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. S. Deehr, M. H. Rees, Planet. Space Sci. 12, 875 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. F. Noxon, V. A. Jones, Nature 196, 157 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Wallace, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1559 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCraken in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. E. Kennelly, J. Franklin Inst. 150, 137 (1900).
  15. S. D. Elliot, Proceedings of Project APEQS Symposium, (Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, California, 1964), p. 37.
  16. W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).
  17. J. Hargreaves, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. 43, 229 (1949).
  18. Measurements of Sky Brightness, Trans. Ilum. Engr. Soc. New York 20, 565 (1925).
  19. C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. W. Allen, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 107, 426 (1947).
  21. N. S. Orlova, Leningrad University, Uchenyye Zapiska, No. 132, 105 (1949), as abstracted in A.I.D. Rept. B-64-20.
  22. C. W. Allen, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 116, 69 (1956).
  23. S. M. Silverman, W. E. Sharp, private communication.
  24. J. Kunz, J. Stebbins, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50, 269 (1919).
  25. N. Betenska, J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 54, 124 (1944).
  26. E. P. Ney, W. F. Huch, P. J. Kellogg, W. Stein, F. Gillet, Astrophys. J. 133, 616 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Gillet, W. A. Stein, E. P. Ney, Astrophys. J. 140, 292 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Volz, AF 19(640)–4546, Sci. Rept. No. 2 (1961).
  29. H. Tanabe, T. Tomhatsu, Rept. Ion Space Res. Jap. 13, 290 (1958).
  30. J. Q. Stewart, J. Stokley, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 49, 186 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. V. Dave, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 54, 307 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. Von Bullrich, Optik 18, 431 (1961).
  33. S. L. Valley, Ed., Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1964).
  34. J. W. T. Walsh, The Science of Daylight (Pitman Publishing Corporation, New York, 1961).
  35. H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A paper by the staff of the Photometry Department, National Physical Laboratory. Illum. Engr. 21, 198 (1928).
  37. J. H. Shaxby, Nature 120, 84 (1927).
    [CrossRef]
  38. C. H. Sharp, S. Mck. Gray, W. F. Little, M. J. Eckweiler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 23, 234, (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. O. Hulburt, Natl. Geophys. Soc. Contrib. Tech., Paper Solar Eclipse, Ser. No. 2, 78 (1942).
  40. D. E. Blackwell, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 115, 629 (1955).
  41. C. Predescu, Acad. Rep. Pop. Rom. 7, 141 (1962).

1966 (1)

1964 (3)

C. S. Deehr, M. H. Rees, Planet. Space Sci. 12, 875 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Dave, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 54, 307 (1964).
[CrossRef]

F. Gillet, W. A. Stein, E. P. Ney, Astrophys. J. 140, 292 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

L. Wallace, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1559 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, T. P. Markham, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6059 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (3)

J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, V. A. Jones, Nature 196, 157 (1962).
[CrossRef]

C. Predescu, Acad. Rep. Pop. Rom. 7, 141 (1962).

1961 (3)

E. P. Ney, W. F. Huch, P. J. Kellogg, W. Stein, F. Gillet, Astrophys. J. 133, 616 (1961).
[CrossRef]

K. Von Bullrich, Optik 18, 431 (1961).

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

1958 (1)

H. Tanabe, T. Tomhatsu, Rept. Ion Space Res. Jap. 13, 290 (1958).

1956 (2)

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Allen, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 116, 69 (1956).

1955 (1)

D. E. Blackwell, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 115, 629 (1955).

1949 (2)

J. Hargreaves, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. 43, 229 (1949).

R. A. Richardson, E. O. Hulbert, J. Geophys. Res. 54, 229 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

C. W. Allen, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 107, 426 (1947).

1944 (1)

N. Betenska, J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 54, 124 (1944).

1940 (1)

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCraken in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCraken in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

J. Q. Stewart, J. Stokley, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 49, 186 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

C. H. Sharp, S. Mck. Gray, W. F. Little, M. J. Eckweiler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 23, 234, (1933).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

A paper by the staff of the Photometry Department, National Physical Laboratory. Illum. Engr. 21, 198 (1928).

1927 (1)

J. H. Shaxby, Nature 120, 84 (1927).
[CrossRef]

1925 (1)

Measurements of Sky Brightness, Trans. Ilum. Engr. Soc. New York 20, 565 (1925).

1919 (1)

J. Kunz, J. Stebbins, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50, 269 (1919).

1900 (1)

A. E. Kennelly, J. Franklin Inst. 150, 137 (1900).

1889 (1)

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thrope, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 180A, 363 (1889).

1715 (1)

E. Halley, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 20, 245 (1715).

Abney, W. de W.

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thrope, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 180A, 363 (1889).

Allen, C. W.

C. W. Allen, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 116, 69 (1956).

C. W. Allen, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 107, 426 (1947).

Arnold, W.

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Batchelder, C. C.

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Batchelder, K.

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Betenska, N.

N. Betenska, J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 54, 124 (1944).

Blackwell, D. E.

D. E. Blackwell, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 115, 629 (1955).

Chambers, G. F.

G. F. Chambers, The Story of Eclipses (D. Appleton and Co., New York, 1902).

Crosswhite, H. M.

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 54, 307 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Deehr, C. S.

C. S. Deehr, M. H. Rees, Planet. Space Sci. 12, 875 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Eckweiler, M. J.

C. H. Sharp, S. Mck. Gray, W. F. Little, M. J. Eckweiler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 23, 234, (1933).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, S. D.

S. D. Elliot, Proceedings of Project APEQS Symposium, (Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, California, 1964), p. 37.

Fastie, W. G.

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

Gillet, F.

F. Gillet, W. A. Stein, E. P. Ney, Astrophys. J. 140, 292 (1964).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ney, W. F. Huch, P. J. Kellogg, W. Stein, F. Gillet, Astrophys. J. 133, 616 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Goody, R. M.

J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R.

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCraken in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. Mck.

C. H. Sharp, S. Mck. Gray, W. F. Little, M. J. Eckweiler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 23, 234, (1933).
[CrossRef]

Halley, E.

E. Halley, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 20, 245 (1715).

Hargreaves, J.

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Hargreaves, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. 43, 229 (1949).

Hargreaves, R.

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Huch, W. F.

E. P. Ney, W. F. Huch, P. J. Kellogg, W. Stein, F. Gillet, Astrophys. J. 133, 616 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Hulbert, E. O.

R. A. Richardson, E. O. Hulbert, J. Geophys. Res. 54, 229 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Hulburt, E. O.

E. O. Hulburt, Natl. Geophys. Soc. Contrib. Tech., Paper Solar Eclipse, Ser. No. 2, 78 (1942).

Johnson, J.

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Jones, V. A.

J. F. Noxon, V. A. Jones, Nature 196, 157 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kellogg, P. J.

E. P. Ney, W. F. Huch, P. J. Kellogg, W. Stein, F. Gillet, Astrophys. J. 133, 616 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kennelly, A. E.

A. E. Kennelly, J. Franklin Inst. 150, 137 (1900).

Koomen, M. J.

M. J. Koomen, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, in The Airglow and the Aurorae, A. Dalgarno, E. B. Armstrong, Eds. (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1956).

Kunz, J.

J. Kunz, J. Stebbins, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50, 269 (1919).

Little, W. F.

C. H. Sharp, S. Mck. Gray, W. F. Little, M. J. Eckweiler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 23, 234, (1933).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, J. W. F.

MacCraken, C. D.

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCraken in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Markham, T. P.

J. F. Noxon, T. P. Markham, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6059 (1963).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

Mitchell, S. A.

S. A. Mitchell, Eclipses of the Sun (Columbia University Press, New York, 1951).

Ney, E. P.

F. Gillet, W. A. Stein, E. P. Ney, Astrophys. J. 140, 292 (1964).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ney, W. F. Huch, P. J. Kellogg, W. Stein, F. Gillet, Astrophys. J. 133, 616 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, T. P. Markham, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6059 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, V. A. Jones, Nature 196, 157 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Orlova, N. S.

N. S. Orlova, Leningrad University, Uchenyye Zapiska, No. 132, 105 (1949), as abstracted in A.I.D. Rept. B-64-20.

Packer, D. M.

M. J. Koomen, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, in The Airglow and the Aurorae, A. Dalgarno, E. B. Armstrong, Eds. (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1956).

Predescu, C.

C. Predescu, Acad. Rep. Pop. Rom. 7, 141 (1962).

Rees, M. H.

C. S. Deehr, M. H. Rees, Planet. Space Sci. 12, 875 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, R. A.

R. A. Richardson, E. O. Hulbert, J. Geophys. Res. 54, 229 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, C. H.

C. H. Sharp, S. Mck. Gray, W. F. Little, M. J. Eckweiler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 23, 234, (1933).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, W. E.

Shaxby, J. H.

J. H. Shaxby, Nature 120, 84 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, S. M.

Stebbins, J.

J. Kunz, J. Stebbins, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50, 269 (1919).

Stein, W.

E. P. Ney, W. F. Huch, P. J. Kellogg, W. Stein, F. Gillet, Astrophys. J. 133, 616 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Stein, W. A.

F. Gillet, W. A. Stein, E. P. Ney, Astrophys. J. 140, 292 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Stetson, H. T.

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, J. Q.

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCraken in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Stewart, J. Stokley, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 49, 186 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Stokley, J.

J. Q. Stewart, J. Stokley, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 49, 186 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, H.

H. Tanabe, T. Tomhatsu, Rept. Ion Space Res. Jap. 13, 290 (1958).

Thrope, T. E.

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thrope, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 180A, 363 (1889).

Tomhatsu, T.

H. Tanabe, T. Tomhatsu, Rept. Ion Space Res. Jap. 13, 290 (1958).

Tousey, R.

M. J. Koomen, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, in The Airglow and the Aurorae, A. Dalgarno, E. B. Armstrong, Eds. (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1956).

Volz, F.

F. Volz, AF 19(640)–4546, Sci. Rept. No. 2 (1961).

Von Bullrich, K.

K. Von Bullrich, Optik 18, 431 (1961).

Wallace, L.

L. Wallace, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1559 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. W. T.

J. W. T. Walsh, The Science of Daylight (Pitman Publishing Corporation, New York, 1961).

Acad. Rep. Pop. Rom. (1)

C. Predescu, Acad. Rep. Pop. Rom. 7, 141 (1962).

Ann. Geophys. (1)

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (5)

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCraken in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ney, W. F. Huch, P. J. Kellogg, W. Stein, F. Gillet, Astrophys. J. 133, 616 (1961).
[CrossRef]

F. Gillet, W. A. Stein, E. P. Ney, Astrophys. J. 140, 292 (1964).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Illum. Engr. (1)

A paper by the staff of the Photometry Department, National Physical Laboratory. Illum. Engr. 21, 198 (1928).

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. F. Noxon, R. M. Goody, J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 342 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. (1)

N. Betenska, J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 54, 124 (1944).

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

A. E. Kennelly, J. Franklin Inst. 150, 137 (1900).

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

L. Wallace, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1559 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Richardson, E. O. Hulbert, J. Geophys. Res. 54, 229 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, T. P. Markham, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6059 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

J. V. Dave, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 54, 307 (1964).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Sharp, S. Mck. Gray, W. F. Little, M. J. Eckweiler, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 23, 234, (1933).
[CrossRef]

J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. (1)

J. Hargreaves, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. 43, 229 (1949).

Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. (3)

C. W. Allen, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 107, 426 (1947).

C. W. Allen, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 116, 69 (1956).

D. E. Blackwell, Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc. 115, 629 (1955).

Nature (2)

J. H. Shaxby, Nature 120, 84 (1927).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, V. A. Jones, Nature 196, 157 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

K. Von Bullrich, Optik 18, 431 (1961).

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London (2)

E. Halley, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 20, 245 (1715).

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thrope, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 180A, 363 (1889).

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

C. S. Deehr, M. H. Rees, Planet. Space Sci. 12, 875 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. (1)

J. Kunz, J. Stebbins, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50, 269 (1919).

Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

J. Q. Stewart, J. Stokley, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 49, 186 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Rept. Ion Space Res. Jap. (1)

H. Tanabe, T. Tomhatsu, Rept. Ion Space Res. Jap. 13, 290 (1958).

Trans. Ilum. Engr. Soc. New York (1)

Measurements of Sky Brightness, Trans. Ilum. Engr. Soc. New York 20, 565 (1925).

Other (10)

S. D. Elliot, Proceedings of Project APEQS Symposium, (Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, California, 1964), p. 37.

M. J. Koomen, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, in The Airglow and the Aurorae, A. Dalgarno, E. B. Armstrong, Eds. (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1956).

G. F. Chambers, The Story of Eclipses (D. Appleton and Co., New York, 1902).

S. A. Mitchell, Eclipses of the Sun (Columbia University Press, New York, 1951).

S. L. Valley, Ed., Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1964).

J. W. T. Walsh, The Science of Daylight (Pitman Publishing Corporation, New York, 1961).

F. Volz, AF 19(640)–4546, Sci. Rept. No. 2 (1961).

S. M. Silverman, W. E. Sharp, private communication.

N. S. Orlova, Leningrad University, Uchenyye Zapiska, No. 132, 105 (1949), as abstracted in A.I.D. Rept. B-64-20.

E. O. Hulburt, Natl. Geophys. Soc. Contrib. Tech., Paper Solar Eclipse, Ser. No. 2, 78 (1942).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The zenith sky brightness for the continuum at 5300 Å, 5600 Å, 5900 Å, and 6300 Å for a normal day sky and during totality.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average zenith sky brightness for the continuum at 5300 Å, 5600 Å, 5800 Å, and 6300 Å during morning twilight for the range of solar depression angle from 2° to 12°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral energy distribution of the zenith sky normalized with respect to 5900 Å for normal day sky (curve A), midtotality (curve B), and morning twilight (curve C). The effective blackbody temperatures are 9100°, 11,100°, and 7800°K, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Eclipse Data for 12 November 1966 from Quehua, Bolivia

Tables Icon

Table II Observed Sky Brightness During Some Total Solar Eclipses

Metrics