Abstract

A technique is described by which multiple reflection techniques can be used to increase the quantum efficiency of some end-on photomultiplier tubes in the red and near ir. The method can be used in practice for astronomical and other applications where field lens imaging on the cathode is required and where small cathodes are desirable. Tests of a group of unselected production model S–20 and S–1 photomultiplier tubes show quantum efficiency gains as high as factors of 3.8 and 1.8, respectively, at practical operating wavelengths.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. E. Rambo, “Improved Long Wavelength Response of Photoemissive Surfaces,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Doc. Rept. AL TDR 64–19, p. 1, 1964.
  2. J. L. Gumnick, “Improved Quantum Efficiency Laser Detectors,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Rept. AFAL–TR–65–190, p. 1, 1965.
  3. K. R. Crowe, J. L. Gumnick, D. A. Wilcox, “Improved Quantum Efficiency Laser Detectors,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Rept. AFAL–TR–66–199, p. 1, 1966.
  4. J. R. Sizelove, J. A. Love, Appl. Opt. 5, 1419 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. R. Sizelove, J. A. Love, Appl. Opt. 6, 443 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Hirschfeld, Appl. Opt. 7, 443 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Drude, The Theory of Optics (Longmans Green and Co. Inc., New York, 1939), p. 278.

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

Crowe, K. R.

K. R. Crowe, J. L. Gumnick, D. A. Wilcox, “Improved Quantum Efficiency Laser Detectors,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Rept. AFAL–TR–66–199, p. 1, 1966.

Drude, P.

P. Drude, The Theory of Optics (Longmans Green and Co. Inc., New York, 1939), p. 278.

Gumnick, J. L.

K. R. Crowe, J. L. Gumnick, D. A. Wilcox, “Improved Quantum Efficiency Laser Detectors,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Rept. AFAL–TR–66–199, p. 1, 1966.

J. L. Gumnick, “Improved Quantum Efficiency Laser Detectors,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Rept. AFAL–TR–65–190, p. 1, 1965.

Hirschfeld, T.

Love, J. A.

Rambo, B. E.

B. E. Rambo, “Improved Long Wavelength Response of Photoemissive Surfaces,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Doc. Rept. AL TDR 64–19, p. 1, 1964.

Sizelove, J. R.

Wilcox, D. A.

K. R. Crowe, J. L. Gumnick, D. A. Wilcox, “Improved Quantum Efficiency Laser Detectors,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Rept. AFAL–TR–66–199, p. 1, 1966.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Other (4)

B. E. Rambo, “Improved Long Wavelength Response of Photoemissive Surfaces,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Doc. Rept. AL TDR 64–19, p. 1, 1964.

J. L. Gumnick, “Improved Quantum Efficiency Laser Detectors,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Rept. AFAL–TR–65–190, p. 1, 1965.

K. R. Crowe, J. L. Gumnick, D. A. Wilcox, “Improved Quantum Efficiency Laser Detectors,” Air Force Avionics Laboratory Tech. Rept. AFAL–TR–66–199, p. 1, 1966.

P. Drude, The Theory of Optics (Longmans Green and Co. Inc., New York, 1939), p. 278.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical configuration in multiple bounce experiments. Light entering the photocathode through the prism is totally reflected at the photocathode surfaces until absorption occurs. (b) Optical configuration for the present experiments. Light reflected from the photocathode surfaces is reflected by the aluminized hemisphere and reimaged on the photocathode. (c) Details of aluminized hemisphere, showing slot through which radiation enters. (d) Proposed schematic design of photomultipliers to take advantage of the gains available with present techniques.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quantum efficiency gains as functions of angle of incidence for a typical S–20 photomultiplier tube. Curves for a range of wavelengths from 5000 Å to 8800 Å are shown. The light source was unpolarized.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantum efficiency gain as a function of angle of incidence for linearly polarized radiation (s and p curves) of 8000-Å wavelength. Continuous curves are computed and dashed curves are measured.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflected and refracted rays at the cathode interfaces.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum efficiency gain as a function of angle of incidence. Continuous curves show computed data, and dashed curves show measured data. Curves 1 and 2 are for aluminized hemispheres, and curves 3 and 4 are for unaluminized hemispheres. All data are for 8000-Å wavelength.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Quantum Efficiency Gainsa of ITT FW 130 Photomultiplier Tubes (S–20), Angle of Incidence 55°

Tables Icon

Table II Quantum Efficiency Gains in ITT FW 118 Photomultipliers (S–1), Angle of Incidence 55°

Equations (14)

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1.5 sin i 1 = n 2 sin i 2 = 1.0 sin i 3 .
s 8 = s 1 [ sin ( i 1 - i 2 ) / sin ( i 1 + i 2 ) ] 2 s 1 C ,
p 8 = p 1 [ tan ( i 1 - i 2 ) / tan ( i 1 + i 2 ) ] 2 p 1 E .
s 2 = s 1 [ 2 sin i 2 cos i 1 sin ( i 1 + i 2 ) ] 2 α s 1 G α ,
p 2 = p 1 [ 2 sin i 2 cos i 1 sin ( i 1 + i 2 ) cos ( i 1 - i 2 ) ] 2 α p 1 H α .
α = ( n 2 / n 1 ) ( cos i 2 / cos i 1 ) .
s 3 = A s 2 [ sin ( i 2 - i 3 ) / sin ( i 2 + i 3 ) ] 2 A s 2 D ,
p 3 = A p 2 [ tan ( i 2 - i 3 ) / tan ( i 2 + i 3 ) ] A p 2 F .
s 4 = A s 3 [ 2 sin i 1 cos i 2 / sin ( i 2 + i 1 ) ] 2 ( 1 / α ) A s 3 U / α ,
p 4 = A p 3 [ 2 sin i 1 cos i 2 sin ( i 2 + i 1 ) cos ( i 2 - i 1 ) ] 2 1 α A p 3 V / α
s / s 1 = α G ( 1 + A D ) ( 1 + A 2 C D + A 4 C 2 D 2 + ) ,
p / p 1 = α H ( 1 + A F ) ( 1 + A 2 E F + A 4 E 2 D 2 + ) .
1 + 0.9 [ C + A 2 G D U ( 1 + A 2 C D + A 4 C 2 D 2 + ) ]
1 + 0.9 [ E + A 2 F H V ( 1 + A 2 E F + A 4 E 2 F 2 + ) ]

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