Abstract

The hostile environment is defined for the purposes of this paper and modes of hostility due to physical, human, and economic factors are outlined. An account is given of some ways in which the optical methods can be defended against the inimical physical and human factors by the functional design of the apparatus with some examples which have proved successful in practice. The influence of economics is discussed, together with its implications for the designer of optical instruments.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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