Abstract

The hostile environment is defined for the purposes of this paper and modes of hostility due to physical, human, and economic factors are outlined. An account is given of some ways in which the optical methods can be defended against the inimical physical and human factors by the functional design of the apparatus with some examples which have proved successful in practice. The influence of economics is discussed, together with its implications for the designer of optical instruments.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. R. Peck, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 66 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Dyson, J. Sci. Instrum. 42, 823 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Terrien, Rev. Opt. 38, 29 (1959).
  4. W. J. Bates, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 940 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Burch, Nature 171, 889 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 386 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Dyson, R. V. Williams, K. M. Young, Plasma Phys. C6, 105 (1964).
  8. J. Dyson, Appl. Opt. 2, 487 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Dyson, Nature 197, 1193 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 190 (1963).
  11. G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 15 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. F. Mooney, B. L. Barlow, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1178 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. L. Gregory, Nature 203, 274 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Dyson, Opt. Acta 8, 217 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Sci. Instrum. 41, 311 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. E. Wood, M. C. Thompson, Nature 211, 172 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 754 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Roy. Microsc. Soc. 81, 95 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Dyson, R. J. Tillen, Inst. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res. 2, 201 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

1966

L. E. Wood, M. C. Thompson, Nature 211, 172 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

C. F. Mooney, B. L. Barlow, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1178 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, J. Sci. Instrum. 42, 823 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

J. Dyson, R. V. Williams, K. M. Young, Plasma Phys. C6, 105 (1964).

R. L. Gregory, Nature 203, 274 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Sci. Instrum. 41, 311 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963

J. Dyson, Appl. Opt. 2, 487 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, Nature 197, 1193 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 190 (1963).

1962

J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Roy. Microsc. Soc. 81, 95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, R. J. Tillen, Inst. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res. 2, 201 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961

J. Dyson, Opt. Acta 8, 217 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960

J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 754 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959

J. Terrien, Rev. Opt. 38, 29 (1959).

1957

G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 15 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 386 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1953

J. M. Burch, Nature 171, 889 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1948

E. R. Peck, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 66 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1947

W. J. Bates, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 940 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. C.

G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 15 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, B. L.

C. F. Mooney, B. L. Barlow, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1178 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bates, W. J.

W. J. Bates, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 940 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Burch, J. M.

J. M. Burch, Nature 171, 889 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dyson, J.

J. Dyson, J. Sci. Instrum. 42, 823 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, R. V. Williams, K. M. Young, Plasma Phys. C6, 105 (1964).

J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Sci. Instrum. 41, 311 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, Appl. Opt. 2, 487 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, Nature 197, 1193 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 190 (1963).

J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Roy. Microsc. Soc. 81, 95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, R. J. Tillen, Inst. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res. 2, 201 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, Opt. Acta 8, 217 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 754 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 386 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, R. L.

R. L. Gregory, Nature 203, 274 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, G. R.

G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 15 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, C. F.

C. F. Mooney, B. L. Barlow, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1178 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Noble, P. J. W.

J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Sci. Instrum. 41, 311 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Roy. Microsc. Soc. 81, 95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Peck, E. R.

E. R. Peck, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 66 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Stroke, G. W.

G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 15 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Sturgis, N.

G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 15 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Terrien, J.

J. Terrien, Rev. Opt. 38, 29 (1959).

Thompson, M. C.

L. E. Wood, M. C. Thompson, Nature 211, 172 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tillen, R. J.

J. Dyson, R. J. Tillen, Inst. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res. 2, 201 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. V.

J. Dyson, R. V. Williams, K. M. Young, Plasma Phys. C6, 105 (1964).

Wood, L. E.

L. E. Wood, M. C. Thompson, Nature 211, 172 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Young, K. M.

J. Dyson, R. V. Williams, K. M. Young, Plasma Phys. C6, 105 (1964).

Appl. Opt.

Inst. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res.

J. Dyson, R. J. Tillen, Inst. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res. 2, 201 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 386 (1957).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Peck, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 66 (1948).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 53, 190 (1963).

G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 47, 15 (1957).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Mooney, B. L. Barlow, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1178 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 754 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Roy. Microsc. Soc.

J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Roy. Microsc. Soc. 81, 95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Sci. Instrum.

J. Dyson, P. J. W. Noble, J. Sci. Instrum. 41, 311 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, J. Sci. Instrum. 42, 823 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. M. Burch, Nature 171, 889 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Dyson, Nature 197, 1193 (1963).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Wood, M. C. Thompson, Nature 211, 172 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Gregory, Nature 203, 274 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

J. Dyson, Opt. Acta 8, 217 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Plasma Phys.

J. Dyson, R. V. Williams, K. M. Young, Plasma Phys. C6, 105 (1964).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London)

W. J. Bates, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 940 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt.

J. Terrien, Rev. Opt. 38, 29 (1959).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Possible immunities in the end systems of interferometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simplified diagram of the optical system used for interferometric measurement of electron density in toroidal discharge.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical streak photograph produced by the apparatus of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferometer microscope for measuring the thickness of thin films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

An extremely stable interferometer. It is immune to all small motions of the end mirror.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The control interferometer for a ruling engine, designed for immunity against atmospheric variations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Basic optical system for an alignment device.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A practical realization of the system shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Errors in a wire helix disclosed by image shearing.

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