Abstract

Turbulent eddies in high pressure microsecond spark channels in helium were photographed by means of a 20-nsec Kerr cell shutter. Current densities exceeded 106 A/cm2. It was shown that turbulences are initiated from plasma jets originating at the electrodes. The cathode jet is explained by Compton’s accommodation theory as extended by Haynes. The observed anode shock wave appears to be the result of a dynamic magnetic pinch.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Fischer, in Conference on Extremely High Temperatures, H. Fischer, L. C. Mansur, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958), p. 11.
  2. H. Fischer, L. Michel, Appl. Opt. 6, 935 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. E. Holtham, H. A. Prime, in Electrical Breakdown of Gases, J. M. Meek, J. D. Craggs, Eds. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950), p. 359.
  4. C. M. Cundall, J. D. Craggs, Spectrochim. Acta 7, 149 (1955).
  5. R. B. Johansson, E. A. Smårs, B. E. Wilner, in 6econference international sur les phénomenés d’ionisation dans les gaz, Paris (SERMA, Faculté des Sciences, Paris, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 611.
  6. J. R. Haynes, Phys. Rev. 73, 891 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. T. Compton, Phys. Rev. 36, 706 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Folkierski, P. Frayne, R. Latham, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 2, 627 (1962).
  9. H. Fischer, in Report on 26th Annual Conference on Physics and Electronics, R. E. Stickney, Ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1966), p. 385.

1967 (1)

1962 (1)

A. Folkierski, P. Frayne, R. Latham, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 2, 627 (1962).

1955 (1)

C. M. Cundall, J. D. Craggs, Spectrochim. Acta 7, 149 (1955).

1948 (1)

J. R. Haynes, Phys. Rev. 73, 891 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

K. T. Compton, Phys. Rev. 36, 706 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Compton, K. T.

K. T. Compton, Phys. Rev. 36, 706 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Craggs, J. D.

C. M. Cundall, J. D. Craggs, Spectrochim. Acta 7, 149 (1955).

Cundall, C. M.

C. M. Cundall, J. D. Craggs, Spectrochim. Acta 7, 149 (1955).

Fischer, H.

H. Fischer, L. Michel, Appl. Opt. 6, 935 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fischer, in Conference on Extremely High Temperatures, H. Fischer, L. C. Mansur, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958), p. 11.

H. Fischer, in Report on 26th Annual Conference on Physics and Electronics, R. E. Stickney, Ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1966), p. 385.

Folkierski, A.

A. Folkierski, P. Frayne, R. Latham, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 2, 627 (1962).

Frayne, P.

A. Folkierski, P. Frayne, R. Latham, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 2, 627 (1962).

Haynes, J. R.

J. R. Haynes, Phys. Rev. 73, 891 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Holtham, A. E.

A. E. Holtham, H. A. Prime, in Electrical Breakdown of Gases, J. M. Meek, J. D. Craggs, Eds. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950), p. 359.

Johansson, R. B.

R. B. Johansson, E. A. Smårs, B. E. Wilner, in 6econference international sur les phénomenés d’ionisation dans les gaz, Paris (SERMA, Faculté des Sciences, Paris, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 611.

Latham, R.

A. Folkierski, P. Frayne, R. Latham, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 2, 627 (1962).

Michel, L.

Prime, H. A.

A. E. Holtham, H. A. Prime, in Electrical Breakdown of Gases, J. M. Meek, J. D. Craggs, Eds. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950), p. 359.

Smårs, E. A.

R. B. Johansson, E. A. Smårs, B. E. Wilner, in 6econference international sur les phénomenés d’ionisation dans les gaz, Paris (SERMA, Faculté des Sciences, Paris, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 611.

Wilner, B. E.

R. B. Johansson, E. A. Smårs, B. E. Wilner, in 6econference international sur les phénomenés d’ionisation dans les gaz, Paris (SERMA, Faculté des Sciences, Paris, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 611.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Nucl. Fusion Suppl. (1)

A. Folkierski, P. Frayne, R. Latham, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 2, 627 (1962).

Phys. Rev. (2)

J. R. Haynes, Phys. Rev. 73, 891 (1948).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Compton, Phys. Rev. 36, 706 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

C. M. Cundall, J. D. Craggs, Spectrochim. Acta 7, 149 (1955).

Other (4)

R. B. Johansson, E. A. Smårs, B. E. Wilner, in 6econference international sur les phénomenés d’ionisation dans les gaz, Paris (SERMA, Faculté des Sciences, Paris, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 611.

A. E. Holtham, H. A. Prime, in Electrical Breakdown of Gases, J. M. Meek, J. D. Craggs, Eds. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950), p. 359.

H. Fischer, in Report on 26th Annual Conference on Physics and Electronics, R. E. Stickney, Ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1966), p. 385.

H. Fischer, in Conference on Extremely High Temperatures, H. Fischer, L. C. Mansur, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958), p. 11.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Homogeneous spark channel in argon (gap = 4 mm, p = 2 atm, U = 6 kV, gate at 675 nsec) and turbulent eddies in helium (gap = 4 mm, p = 8.75 atm, U = 6 kV, gate at 675 nsec).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spark channel development in helium with d = 4 mm, U = 3.0 kV, p = 3.5 atm, and maximum current density approximately 106 A/cm2. Cathode is at the top of the figure. Numbers under figures are gate times after breakdown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spark channel development in helium with increased gas pressure and breakdown voltages (d = 4 mm, p = 8.7 atm, U = 6.0 kV, maximum current density approximately 3 × 106 A/cm2). Numbers under figures are gate times after breakdown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Twisted spark channel and anode flare in helium toward the end of the current pulse at 830 sec (gap = 4 mm, p = 9 atm, U = 6.2 kV).

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