Abstract

Measurements, performed at NBS, NPL, and PTB, on helium–neon lasers stabilized on the Lamb dip, have shown that the wavelengths of these lasers fell within approximately 1 part in 107. Beyond this limit, different lasers were found to emit different wavelengths. In addition, the wavelength of a given laser may vary during the life of its discharge tube. Pressure shifts appear to be a major cause of these variations.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, R. B. Zipin, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 277 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 259 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Engelhard, Z. Angew. Phys. 20, 404 (1966).
  4. —Comptes Rendus, 11emeConférence Généraledes Poids et Mesures (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1960), p. 85.
  5. E. Engelhard, in Metrology of Gage Blocks, NBS Circular 581 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957), p. 1.
  6. W. Kinder, Zeiss Werkzeitschrift, No. 43 (1962).
  7. W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, Nature 200, 745 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964); or K. E. Gillilland, H. D. Cook, K. D. Mielenz, R. B. Stephens, Metrol. 2, 95 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Turner, K. M. Baird, M. J. Taylor, C. J. van der Hoeven, Rev. Sci. Instr. 35, 996 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. L. Bloom, D. L. Wright, Appl. Opt. 5, 1528 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Fadl, Thesis, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. (1966).
  12. A. D. White, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 24 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. H. Lee, M. L. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 303 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Birky, NBS, Washington, D.C. (private communication).

1967 (2)

A. D. White, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 24 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lee, M. L. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 303 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (3)

1965 (1)

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, R. B. Zipin, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964); or K. E. Gillilland, H. D. Cook, K. D. Mielenz, R. B. Stephens, Metrol. 2, 95 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Turner, K. M. Baird, M. J. Taylor, C. J. van der Hoeven, Rev. Sci. Instr. 35, 996 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, Nature 200, 745 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. Kinder, Zeiss Werkzeitschrift, No. 43 (1962).

Baird, K. M.

R. Turner, K. M. Baird, M. J. Taylor, C. J. van der Hoeven, Rev. Sci. Instr. 35, 996 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Birky, M.

M. Birky, NBS, Washington, D.C. (private communication).

Bloom, A. L.

Cook, H. D.

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964); or K. E. Gillilland, H. D. Cook, K. D. Mielenz, R. B. Stephens, Metrol. 2, 95 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelhard, E.

E. Engelhard, Z. Angew. Phys. 20, 404 (1966).

E. Engelhard, in Metrology of Gage Blocks, NBS Circular 581 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957), p. 1.

Fadl, M.

M. Fadl, Thesis, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. (1966).

Gillilland, K. E.

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, R. B. Zipin, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964); or K. E. Gillilland, H. D. Cook, K. D. Mielenz, R. B. Stephens, Metrol. 2, 95 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinder, W.

W. Kinder, Zeiss Werkzeitschrift, No. 43 (1962).

Lee, P. H.

P. H. Lee, M. L. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 303 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Mielenz, K. D.

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, R. B. Zipin, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964); or K. E. Gillilland, H. D. Cook, K. D. Mielenz, R. B. Stephens, Metrol. 2, 95 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nefflen, K. F.

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, R. B. Zipin, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 259 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, Nature 200, 745 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. L.

P. H. Lee, M. L. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 303 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, R. B.

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, R. B. Zipin, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964); or K. E. Gillilland, H. D. Cook, K. D. Mielenz, R. B. Stephens, Metrol. 2, 95 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, M. J.

R. Turner, K. M. Baird, M. J. Taylor, C. J. van der Hoeven, Rev. Sci. Instr. 35, 996 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Turner, R.

R. Turner, K. M. Baird, M. J. Taylor, C. J. van der Hoeven, Rev. Sci. Instr. 35, 996 (1964).
[CrossRef]

van der Hoeven, C. J.

R. Turner, K. M. Baird, M. J. Taylor, C. J. van der Hoeven, Rev. Sci. Instr. 35, 996 (1964).
[CrossRef]

White, A. D.

A. D. White, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 24 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. C.

W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 259 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, Nature 200, 745 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Wright, D. L.

Zipin, R. B.

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, R. B. Zipin, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Letters (3)

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, R. B. Zipin, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

A. D. White, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 24 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lee, M. L. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 303 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature (1)

W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, Nature 200, 745 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

R. Turner, K. M. Baird, M. J. Taylor, C. J. van der Hoeven, Rev. Sci. Instr. 35, 996 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964); or K. E. Gillilland, H. D. Cook, K. D. Mielenz, R. B. Stephens, Metrol. 2, 95 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Angew. Phys. (1)

E. Engelhard, Z. Angew. Phys. 20, 404 (1966).

Zeiss Werkzeitschrift (1)

W. Kinder, Zeiss Werkzeitschrift, No. 43 (1962).

Other (4)

—Comptes Rendus, 11emeConférence Généraledes Poids et Mesures (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1960), p. 85.

E. Engelhard, in Metrology of Gage Blocks, NBS Circular 581 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957), p. 1.

M. Fadl, Thesis, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. (1966).

M. Birky, NBS, Washington, D.C. (private communication).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of laser wavelength with time, observed at PTB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabry-Perot etalon and grating spectrograph used at NBS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pressure-scanned, Fabry-Perot system used at NPL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference comparator used at PTB.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Wavelength Measurements of British Lasersa Performed at NPL.

Equations (14)

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λ vac = ( 632.99147 ± 0.00003 ) nm .
λ vac = ( 632.991380 ± 0.000006 ) nm ,
λ vac = ( 632.99145 ± 0.00001 ) nm
λ vac = ( 632.991381 ± 0.000003 ) nm ,
λ vac = ( 632.99142 0 ± 0.00001 1 ) nm ,
λ vac = ( 632.991398 ± 0.000002 ) nm
λ vac = ( 632.991389 ± 0.000004 ) nm
λ vac = ( 632.9914146 ± 0.0000008 ) nm ,
λ vac = 632.991441 nm ,
N + = 2 L / λ = 2 L n / λ - 2 L ( n - 1 ) / λ = N - ( M + μ ) L / L ,
λ vac = ( 632.991418 ± 0.00003 ) nm .
λ vac = ( 632.991373 ± 0.000003 ) nm ,
λ vac = 632.991418 nm ,
λ vac = 632.9914 nm .

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