Abstract

The optical image quality is influenced by aberrations, by diffraction, and by other factors, such as flare or stray light originating from the badly polished surfaces of lenses, from the edges of the mount, from striations and bubbles in the glass, and from unwanted double reflections. These effects are harmful, but they cannot always be avoided. Their influence on the measured optical transfer function depends on the measuring method used and on the kind of test object. Experimental results are described.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Opt. Acta 4, 21 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 67, 179 (1959).
  3. K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 71, 14 (1963).
  4. K. J. Rosenbruch, K. Rosenhauer, Optik 21, 652 (1964).
  5. E. Diederichs, Thesis Technische Hochschule Braunschweig, (1961); E. Diederichs, A. Lohmann, Optik 15, 751 (1958)

1964

K. J. Rosenbruch, K. Rosenhauer, Optik 21, 652 (1964).

1963

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 71, 14 (1963).

1959

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 67, 179 (1959).

1957

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Opt. Acta 4, 21 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Diederichs, E.

E. Diederichs, Thesis Technische Hochschule Braunschweig, (1961); E. Diederichs, A. Lohmann, Optik 15, 751 (1958)

Rosenbruch, K. J.

K. J. Rosenbruch, K. Rosenhauer, Optik 21, 652 (1964).

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 71, 14 (1963).

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 67, 179 (1959).

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Opt. Acta 4, 21 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Rosenhauer, K.

K. J. Rosenbruch, K. Rosenhauer, Optik 21, 652 (1964).

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 71, 14 (1963).

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 67, 179 (1959).

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Opt. Acta 4, 21 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Opt. Acta 4, 21 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Optik

K. J. Rosenbruch, K. Rosenhauer, Optik 21, 652 (1964).

Z. Instrumentenk.

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 67, 179 (1959).

K. Rosenhauer, K. J. Rosenbruch, Z. Instrumentenk. 71, 14 (1963).

Other

E. Diederichs, Thesis Technische Hochschule Braunschweig, (1961); E. Diederichs, A. Lohmann, Optik 15, 751 (1958)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OTF curve of a lens 1:2 f = 50 mm for the wavelength λ = 546 nm in best focus on axis measured by five different measuring methods: + sinus wave on rotating drum direct scanning method; × square wave on rotating drum and calculated OTF; ○ sector star method (optical Fourier analysis); □ edge image method (electronic analysis); △ slit image analysis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OTF curves of a lens 1:2 f = 50 mm for the wavelength λ = 546 nm in best focus on axis and for 13° field angle in tangential azimuth measured by five different measuring methods: ○ small band analyzing of an edge image; + wide λ band analyzing of an edge image; □ direct scanning method; ▽ OTF curve calculated from wave aberrations by a digital computer; △ OTF curve calculated from wave aberrations by an analog computer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup for measuring OTF curves: IU = illuminating unit, D = test object, T = lens under test, MO = microscope objective, S = slit, PM = photomultiplier, OTF, OG = oscilloscope or recorder of the OTF values, BD = beam divider, O = ideal lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Grating test object on axis with three different background illuminations. The hatched part corresponds to the dark object field, and the limit of the image field is indicated by a frame.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Grating test object in 15° field angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured OTF curves of a lens 1:1.2 f = 50 mm in 0° field angle and different sizes of the surrounding illuminated field for full aperture. The dashed curves give the values for the lens with a diffusing screen before the front lens.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured OTF curves of a lens 1:1.2 f = 50 mm stopped down to 1:4 in 0° field angle and different sizes of the surrounding illuminated field. The dashed curves have been measured with a diffusing screen before the lens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured OTF curves of a lens 1:1.2 f = 50 mm full stop in 15° field angle and different sizes of the surrounding illuminated field. The dashed curves have been measured with a diffusing screen before the lens. The lower curves correspond to the larger illuminated field.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Different edge objects. The hatched part describes the dark object field which can be imaged by the test lens.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Illuminance vs lateral distance from the ideal step in the image of an edge imaged by the lens 1:1.2 f = 50 mm, full stop, 0° field angle, with and without diffusing screen. Only the two extremely different surrounding fields of Fig. 9 are shown. The abscissa indicates the distance from the ideal step in the object space.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Slit images calculated from the two edge images of the lens with diffusing screen illustrated in Fig. 10. The dashed curve is calculated from the edge image with the smallest surrounding field. The abscissa indicates the lateral corrdinate of the image space.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

OTF calculated from the two slit images of Fig. 11.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measured and calculated slit images. The differences in the foot of the curves are within the limits of the accuracy.

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