Abstract

Specially prepared barium sulfate powders and coatings of these powders with polyvinyl alcohol have been used as working standards of reflectance and for coating integrating spheres. These materials are satisfactory for use in the wavelength range 0.20–2.00 μ. Since the refractive index of barium sulfate is rather low, it is necessary to use fairly thick layers in order to obtain good results. The absolute value of luminous reflectance of the barium sulfate powder, described in this paper, is 0.995 ± 0.001, and that of the paint, when properly applied, is 0.992 ± 0.001. The spectral reflectance of this material is higher than that of magnesium oxide, particularly in the uv region of the spectrum. By using barium sulfate as reference standard and as a coating on the integrating spheres of spectrophotometers, it is now possible to measure spectral reflectance reliably in the uv region to 200 nm. Because the reflectance of barium sulfate paint is significantly greater than that of magnesium oxide in the shortwave region, there is a corresponding gain in instrument sensitivity when barium sulfate is used as a sphere coating and as a comparison material.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Ostwald in Deut. Kaiserlichen Sitzungsber. Abhandl., Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft Leipzig, Math. Phys. Kl.365–572 (1917); Color Science (Winsor and Newton, Ltd., London, 1933), pp. 7–8.
  2. I. M. Kolthoff, E. B. Sandell, Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1952).
  3. R. E. Russell, Paper Coating Pigments, revised ed. (TAPPI, New York, 1966), p. 24.
  4. H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 904 (1955).
  5. K. Miescher, R. Rometsch, Experimentia 6, 302 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254 (1953).
  7. W. Budde, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 217 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. K. Hammond, B. P. Caldwell, D. G. Goebel, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1321 (1962).
  9. Recommended Practice for Preparation of Reference White Standards, E 259–66, Book of ASTM Standards, Part 30 (1966).
  10. D. G. Goebel, B. P. Caldwell, H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 783 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Weber, Z. Phys. 130, 392 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Standard Method for Absolute Calibration of Reflectance Standards, E 306–66, Book of ASTM Standards (1966).
  13. W. Budde, Die Farbe 7, 295 (1958).
  14. W. Budde, Die Farbe 7, 17 (1958).
  15. O. E. Miller, A. J. Sant, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 828 (1958).
    [CrossRef]

1966

D. G. Goebel, B. P. Caldwell, H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 783 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962

H. K. Hammond, B. P. Caldwell, D. G. Goebel, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1321 (1962).

1960

W. Budde, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 217 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1958

W. Budde, Die Farbe 7, 295 (1958).

W. Budde, Die Farbe 7, 17 (1958).

O. E. Miller, A. J. Sant, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 828 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1955

H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 904 (1955).

1953

W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254 (1953).

1951

H. Weber, Z. Phys. 130, 392 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1950

K. Miescher, R. Rometsch, Experimentia 6, 302 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1917

W. Ostwald in Deut. Kaiserlichen Sitzungsber. Abhandl., Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft Leipzig, Math. Phys. Kl.365–572 (1917); Color Science (Winsor and Newton, Ltd., London, 1933), pp. 7–8.

Budde, W.

W. Budde, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 217 (1960).
[CrossRef]

W. Budde, Die Farbe 7, 295 (1958).

W. Budde, Die Farbe 7, 17 (1958).

Caldwell, B. P.

D. G. Goebel, B. P. Caldwell, H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 783 (1966).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hammond, B. P. Caldwell, D. G. Goebel, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1321 (1962).

Goebel, D. G.

D. G. Goebel, B. P. Caldwell, H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 783 (1966).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hammond, B. P. Caldwell, D. G. Goebel, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1321 (1962).

Hammond, H. K.

D. G. Goebel, B. P. Caldwell, H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 783 (1966).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hammond, B. P. Caldwell, D. G. Goebel, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1321 (1962).

H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 904 (1955).

Kolthoff, I. M.

I. M. Kolthoff, E. B. Sandell, Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1952).

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254 (1953).

Miescher, K.

K. Miescher, R. Rometsch, Experimentia 6, 302 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Miller, O. E.

O. E. Miller, A. J. Sant, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 828 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ostwald, W.

W. Ostwald in Deut. Kaiserlichen Sitzungsber. Abhandl., Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft Leipzig, Math. Phys. Kl.365–572 (1917); Color Science (Winsor and Newton, Ltd., London, 1933), pp. 7–8.

Rometsch, R.

K. Miescher, R. Rometsch, Experimentia 6, 302 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Russell, R. E.

R. E. Russell, Paper Coating Pigments, revised ed. (TAPPI, New York, 1966), p. 24.

Sandell, E. B.

I. M. Kolthoff, E. B. Sandell, Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1952).

Sanders, C. L.

W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254 (1953).

Sant, A. J.

O. E. Miller, A. J. Sant, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 828 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

H. Weber, Z. Phys. 130, 392 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Deut. Kaiserlichen Sitzungsber. Abhandl., Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft Leipzig, Math. Phys. Kl.

W. Ostwald in Deut. Kaiserlichen Sitzungsber. Abhandl., Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft Leipzig, Math. Phys. Kl.365–572 (1917); Color Science (Winsor and Newton, Ltd., London, 1933), pp. 7–8.

Die Farbe

W. Budde, Die Farbe 7, 295 (1958).

W. Budde, Die Farbe 7, 17 (1958).

Experimentia

K. Miescher, R. Rometsch, Experimentia 6, 302 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Illum. Eng.

W. E. K. Middleton, C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. 48, 254 (1953).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

W. Budde, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 50, 217 (1960).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hammond, B. P. Caldwell, D. G. Goebel, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1321 (1962).

D. G. Goebel, B. P. Caldwell, H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 783 (1966).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Miller, A. J. Sant, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 828 (1958).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hammond, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 904 (1955).

Z. Phys.

H. Weber, Z. Phys. 130, 392 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Other

Standard Method for Absolute Calibration of Reflectance Standards, E 306–66, Book of ASTM Standards (1966).

I. M. Kolthoff, E. B. Sandell, Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1952).

R. E. Russell, Paper Coating Pigments, revised ed. (TAPPI, New York, 1966), p. 24.

Recommended Practice for Preparation of Reference White Standards, E 259–66, Book of ASTM Standards, Part 30 (1966).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral reflectance of typical barium sulfate samples: (1) pressed powder; (2) PVA coating 1.0-mm thick, measured relative to freshly smoked magnesium oxide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral reflectance of a Vitrolite tile vs barium sulfate, measured on a Beckman DK–2A spectroreflectometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Goniophotometric curve of barium sulfate coating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Infrared reflectance of typical barium sulfate samples: (1) pressed powder; (2) PVA coating, measured relative to freshly smoked magnesium oxide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral reflectance of one typical coating of Eastman White Reflectance paint 1.0 mm thick relative to barium sulfate pressed powder (infinite thickness).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral reflectance in the uv and visible regions of various sphere paint samples, measured relative to pressed BaSO4 powder. (0) Eastman Optical White paint; (1) BaSO4–CMC paint; (2) G.E. Photometer Sphere paint No. 116–9–1; (3) TiO2 paint; (4) barium sulfate with low content of gelatin on paper support; (5) Flat White Krylon.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Near ir reflectances of samples in Fig. 9, measured on the same instrument.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Changes in reflectance after 2.9-Mlx h exposure to xenon arc lamp. (1) Pressed BaSO4 powder; (2) paint coating 1.0-mm thick; (3) smoked MgO.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral reflectance of pressed magnesium oxide sample: (1) before; (2) after 2.7-Mlx h exposure to xenon arc. Measured relative to unexposed pressed barium sulfate.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Deterioration of reflectance of a smoked magnesium oxide sample as a function of time, measured relative to a pressed barium sulfate powder: (1) freshly prepared; (2) after 4 days; (3) after 30 days.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relative response of a spectrophotometer, including tungsten source and photocell sensitivity. (1) Instrument’s sphere coated with manufacturer’s paint; (2) sphere coated with Eastman Optical White paint.

Tables (1)

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Table I Absolute Reflectance of Barium Sulfate and of Smoked Magnesium Oxide

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