Abstract

The performance of a commercial rapid scanning spectrometer was checked experimentally in studies of flash photolysis, photochromism, phosphorescence, and thermal radiation. Rapid scan spectra (1 msec to 100 msec) were measured in portions of the uv, visible, and ir spectral regions (total wavelength coverage 250 nm to 14.5 μm), at rates up to 800 spectra/sec. The effect of grating line spacing on resolution and spectral range was measured. In absorption measurements, successive scans of the background radiation source were photometrically reproducible to within 1 part in 80. The effect of scanning time on resolution was studied experimentally; resolution of 0.94 cm−1 at 2400 cm−1 was achieved with signal-to-noise of 30:1, during rapid scanning. Recording on magnetic tape and oscillographic recording are illustrated.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, G. J. Penzias, Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, June 1965, Paper AE11.
  2. S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, G. J. Penzias, Appl. Opt. 6, 267 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. M. Hexter, C. W. Hand, P. Z. Kaufman, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 11, 261 (1966), Paper FJ3.
  4. E. W. Abrahamson, D. Husain, J. R. Wiesenfeld, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, part 4, 833 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Klein, G. J. Penzias, AIAA J. 5, 1690 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. McCaa, Appl. Opt. 7, 899 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Aiman, A. D. Baer, N. W. Ryan, University of Utah, private communication, 1967.
  8. V. Siminski, Esso Research & Engineering Company, private communication, 1967.
  9. IUPAC Commission on Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy, Tables of Wavenumbers for the Calibration of Infrared Spectrometers (Butterworth Inc., Washington, D. C., 1961), pp. 576–577.
  10. L. Klein, Appl. Opt. 7, 677 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (3)

E. W. Abrahamson, D. Husain, J. R. Wiesenfeld, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, part 4, 833 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. Klein, Appl. Opt. 7, 677 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. McCaa, Appl. Opt. 7, 899 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (2)

1966 (1)

R. M. Hexter, C. W. Hand, P. Z. Kaufman, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 11, 261 (1966), Paper FJ3.

Abrahamson, E. W.

E. W. Abrahamson, D. Husain, J. R. Wiesenfeld, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, part 4, 833 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aiman, W.

W. Aiman, A. D. Baer, N. W. Ryan, University of Utah, private communication, 1967.

Baer, A. D.

W. Aiman, A. D. Baer, N. W. Ryan, University of Utah, private communication, 1967.

Dolin, S. A.

S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, G. J. Penzias, Appl. Opt. 6, 267 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, G. J. Penzias, Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, June 1965, Paper AE11.

Hand, C. W.

R. M. Hexter, C. W. Hand, P. Z. Kaufman, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 11, 261 (1966), Paper FJ3.

Hexter, R. M.

R. M. Hexter, C. W. Hand, P. Z. Kaufman, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 11, 261 (1966), Paper FJ3.

Husain, D.

E. W. Abrahamson, D. Husain, J. R. Wiesenfeld, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, part 4, 833 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, P. Z.

R. M. Hexter, C. W. Hand, P. Z. Kaufman, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 11, 261 (1966), Paper FJ3.

Klein, L.

L. Klein, Appl. Opt. 7, 677 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Klein, G. J. Penzias, AIAA J. 5, 1690 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kruegle, H. A.

S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, G. J. Penzias, Appl. Opt. 6, 267 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, G. J. Penzias, Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, June 1965, Paper AE11.

McCaa, D. J.

Penzias, G. J.

S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, G. J. Penzias, Appl. Opt. 6, 267 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Klein, G. J. Penzias, AIAA J. 5, 1690 (1967).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, G. J. Penzias, Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, June 1965, Paper AE11.

Ryan, N. W.

W. Aiman, A. D. Baer, N. W. Ryan, University of Utah, private communication, 1967.

Siminski, V.

V. Siminski, Esso Research & Engineering Company, private communication, 1967.

Wiesenfeld, J. R.

E. W. Abrahamson, D. Husain, J. R. Wiesenfeld, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, part 4, 833 (1968).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

L. Klein, G. J. Penzias, AIAA J. 5, 1690 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. (1)

R. M. Hexter, C. W. Hand, P. Z. Kaufman, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 11, 261 (1966), Paper FJ3.

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

E. W. Abrahamson, D. Husain, J. R. Wiesenfeld, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, part 4, 833 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. Aiman, A. D. Baer, N. W. Ryan, University of Utah, private communication, 1967.

V. Siminski, Esso Research & Engineering Company, private communication, 1967.

IUPAC Commission on Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy, Tables of Wavenumbers for the Calibration of Infrared Spectrometers (Butterworth Inc., Washington, D. C., 1961), pp. 576–577.

S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, G. J. Penzias, Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, June 1965, Paper AE11.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Isometric diagram of the model 501 rapid scanning spectrometer, set up for infrared spectroscopy. The corner mirrors are swept parallel to the intermediate focal surface of the 0.4-m, f/5.5 Czerny-Turner monochromator. This produces a sweep of the double pass spectrum across the exit slits S2 and S3. Details are given in Ref. 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the resolution obtainable (0.38 cm−1) when the spectrometer is used in the conventional way, scanning slowly.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thirty-two superimposed scans of the visible spectrum of a calibrated tungsten strip lamp, each measured in 1 msec. Total time, 40 msec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A flash photolysis experiment—transient absorption of a crystal violet dye. Each spectrum scanned in 100 msec; total time, 4 sec.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectra of a photochromic dye reaction, illustrating use of variable scan intervals and variable time delay. In all these records, time increases upwards, and the uppermost spectrum was measured after completion of the reaction. (a) Scan time, 10 msec; 115-msec interval between scans; time delay less than 10 msec between xenon flash and first (lowest) scan. (b) Scan time, 10 msec; 40-msec interval between scans; time delay less than 10 msec. (c) Scan time, 10 msec; 40 msec between scans; time delay, 250 msec.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission plus transmission and emission-alone spectra of a quartz disk cooling from 1000°C toward 25°C. The right half of each trace is the emission-alone spectrum; the left half is the emission plus transmission spectrum. The upper four traces are short wavelength scans from 1.7 μm to 3.1 μm (InAs detector). The lower four traces are long wavelength scans from 3.0 μm to 4.7 μm (InSb detector). Within each group of four traces, time increases downward. A near infrared 35-lines/mm grating was used. Scan time, 100 msec; the time between traces is 1.25 sec.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Decay of phosphorescence after flashing; illustrates recording of transient spectra in 1-msec scans at 800 scans/sec. The phosphor was GE PI–760.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Rapid scan spectra recorded on magnetic tape and played back through strip chart recorder. A chemical kinetics experiment: release of free iodine in a starch solution. Time scale is 25 msec per major division. The ordinate is the spectral radiance of the background source. The asymmetry of the last three scans (at the left) shows that the transmittance of the sample is diminishing more rapidly toward the red, making the sample appear blue.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A single scan covering the region 2.5–9.0 μm, measured in 100 msec. The upper trace goes from 2.4 μm to 4.7 μm and the lower trace from 4.6 μm to 9.0 μm, measured simultaneously. An 11.58-lines/mm grating was used. The detectors were indium antimonide, liquid nitrogen-cooled, for 2.4 μm to 4.7 μm, and copper-doped germanium, liquid helium-cooled, for 4.6 μm to 9.0 μm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The spectral region 1.7–4.8 μm measured by a 35 lines/mm grating. Upper trace, 1.7 μm to 3.0 μm; lower trace, 3.0 μm to 4.8 μm: measured simultaneously. Short wavelength detector InAs, long wavelength detector InSb, both cooled by liquid nitrogen.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The spectral region covered by a 300-lines/mm grating, 4.19 μm to 4.27 μm, measured in 38 msec, with a liquid nitrogen-cooled InSb detector. This illustrates the resolution attainable in the infrared, while scanning rapidly.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Resolution and signal-to-noise ratio: HCl lines measured in 100 msec with a liquid nitrogen-cooled InSb detector.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Resolution and signal-to-noise ratio: HCl lines measured in 1 msec.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

A polystyrene spectrum measured with a liquid helium-cooled detector. This spectrum illustrates the long wavelength infrared capability of the spectrometer. Scanned in 100 msec.

Equations (3)

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N c ( λ ) = N s ( λ ) + N 0 ( λ ) [ 1 - α s ( λ ) ] ,
IO 3 - + 5 I - + 6 H + 3 I 2 + 3 H 2 O ,
I 2 + AsO 2 - + H 2 O 2 I - + AsO 3 - + 2 H + .

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