Abstract

Perforated metal plates (grids) of various kinds are used for the construction of transmission filters for the far ir. Examples are given of filters with low pass, high pass, bandpass, and bandstop characteristics with steep slopes. These filters are the optical equivalents of microwave waveguide filters. They can be designed by the same theoretical procedures as those to meet a wide variety of different specifications, at least in principle. Actually, losses and constructional tolerances limit the performance. Measurements at oblique incidence indicate that the filters will find useful application in light pipes too. Furthermore, they may prove advantageous in short millimeter wave systems that employ optical techniques.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Ulrich, Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Sept. 1967, Columbus, Ohio.
  2. R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967) [Errata: Eq. (3a) must read sin2ψΓ = |τ|2. In Eq. (13), the first 2 must be omitted from the denominator.]
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1964).
  4. K. F. Renk, L. Genzel, Appl. Opt. 1, 643 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. E. Bell, Infrared Phys. 6, 57 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. E. Russel, E. E. Bell, Infrared Phys. 6, 75 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. D. Rawcliffe, C. M. Randall, Appl. Opt. 6, 1353 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. D. Moeller, Fairleigh Dickenson University, Teaneck, N. J. (private communication).
  9. R. Ulrich (to be published).
  10. J. P. Auton, Appl. Opt. 6, 1023 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 65 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), p. 327.
  13. A. F. Wickersham, Jr. Appl. Phys. 29, 1537 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. H. Ott, “The Scattering by a Two-Dimensional Periodic Array of Plates,” Tech. Rep. 2148–2, June1966, Antenna Laboratory of The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
  15. J. Taub, J. J. Cohen, Proc. IEEE 54, 647 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1967 (4)

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967) [Errata: Eq. (3a) must read sin2ψΓ = |τ|2. In Eq. (13), the first 2 must be omitted from the denominator.]
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 65 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Auton, Appl. Opt. 6, 1023 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Rawcliffe, C. M. Randall, Appl. Opt. 6, 1353 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (3)

J. Taub, J. J. Cohen, Proc. IEEE 54, 647 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bell, Infrared Phys. 6, 57 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Russel, E. E. Bell, Infrared Phys. 6, 75 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

1958 (1)

A. F. Wickersham, Jr. Appl. Phys. 29, 1537 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Auton, J. P.

Bell, E. E.

E. E. Bell, Infrared Phys. 6, 57 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Russel, E. E. Bell, Infrared Phys. 6, 75 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), p. 327.

Cohen, J. J.

J. Taub, J. J. Cohen, Proc. IEEE 54, 647 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Genzel, L.

Jones, E. M. T.

G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1964).

Matthaei, G. L.

G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1964).

Moeller, K. D.

K. D. Moeller, Fairleigh Dickenson University, Teaneck, N. J. (private communication).

Ott, R. H.

R. H. Ott, “The Scattering by a Two-Dimensional Periodic Array of Plates,” Tech. Rep. 2148–2, June1966, Antenna Laboratory of The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Randall, C. M.

Rawcliffe, R. D.

Renk, K. F.

Russel, E. E.

E. E. Russel, E. E. Bell, Infrared Phys. 6, 75 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Taub, J.

J. Taub, J. J. Cohen, Proc. IEEE 54, 647 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 65 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967) [Errata: Eq. (3a) must read sin2ψΓ = |τ|2. In Eq. (13), the first 2 must be omitted from the denominator.]
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Sept. 1967, Columbus, Ohio.

R. Ulrich (to be published).

Wickersham, A. F.

A. F. Wickersham, Jr. Appl. Phys. 29, 1537 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), p. 327.

Young, L.

G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1964).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Infrared Phys. (4)

E. E. Bell, Infrared Phys. 6, 57 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Russel, E. E. Bell, Infrared Phys. 6, 75 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967) [Errata: Eq. (3a) must read sin2ψΓ = |τ|2. In Eq. (13), the first 2 must be omitted from the denominator.]
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 65 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Jr. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. F. Wickersham, Jr. Appl. Phys. 29, 1537 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Taub, J. J. Cohen, Proc. IEEE 54, 647 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. Ulrich, Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Sept. 1967, Columbus, Ohio.

R. H. Ott, “The Scattering by a Two-Dimensional Periodic Array of Plates,” Tech. Rep. 2148–2, June1966, Antenna Laboratory of The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), p. 327.

G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1964).

K. D. Moeller, Fairleigh Dickenson University, Teaneck, N. J. (private communication).

R. Ulrich (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Construction of multigrid filters (schematic). Each grid is glued to a ring and stretched like a drumskin by means of three screws and nuts (only one shown). Surface A is optically flat.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmission T of low pass filters composed of four identical grids (capacitive squares g = 51 μ, a/g = 0.18) with three equal spacers. The thickness of the spacers is the identifying parameter. The transmission of a single grid is shown for reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission T of four-grid low pass filters combined from grids (capacitive squares) of different grid constants. Most of the fine structure of these curves in the T = 10−3–10−4 range is not reproducible and is given here only in order to demonstrate the noise level of the measurements. Data: … = filter of three grids g1 = g2 = g3 = 102 μ, a/g = 0.08 plus one grid g4 = 51 μ, a/g = 0.18, spacers s1 = s2 = 50 μ, s3 = 40 μ. The two other filters are symmetrical and have two central grids of g = 51 μ, a/g = 0.18 and two outer grids of g = 25 μ, a/g = 0.10. Their spacers are s1 = s3 = 28 μ, s2 = 20 μ (—), and s1 = s2 = s3 = 20 μ (- - -).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmission of a high pass filter. Four metal meshes (g = 51 μ, a/g = 0.11, nickel), and three equal spacers of 20 μ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured transmission of band filters combined from metal mesh. By using more than two grids, a broad bandwidth and high stopband attentuation can be achieved simultaneously. — = filter of three grids, g1 = g3 = 51 μ, g2 = 25μ, s1 = s2 = 51μ. — = filter of four grids, g1 = g4 = 51 μ, g2 = g3 = 25 μ, s1 = s2 = s3 = 51 μ. All meshes are nickel. The 51-μ meshes have a/g = 0.11, the 25-μ meshes a/g = 0.16. … = calculated transmission of a two-grid filter of two thin inductive grids which has the same bandwidth (5 cm−1) as the three-grid filter. Its parameters (compare Ref. 2) are g = 51 μ, ω0 = 1, Z0 = 1, R = 0.02, s = 55 μ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured characteristic of a three-grid band filter operating in higher order. Same grids as in the three-grid filter of Fig. 5, but spacers s1 = s2 = 919 μ (glass rings). The interference orders are given in parentheses. The indicated points are the result of the Fourier transform of the interferogram, and the smooth curve has been drawn through them to average the irregularities due to noise. Especially in the left half the shape of the transmission peaks is not resolved.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured transmission of a bandpass filter composed of four resonant grids. Inductive crosses, g = 102 μ, a/g = 0.06, b/g = 0.14 (for a, b, g, see insert in Fig. 8), s1 = s3 = 50 μ, s2 = 100 μ. — = normal incidence, - - - = oblique incidence at 27° and TM polarization. … = transmission of a single resonant grid (inductive crosses).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured transmission characteristic of bandstop filters. - - - single resonant grid (capacitive crosses), g = 102 μ, a/g = 0.13, b/g = 0.06. — = filter of two of these grids, spacer s = 38 μ.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s j = ( 4 π ν 1 ) - 1 ( ϕ j , j ( ν 1 ) + ϕ j + 1 , j ( ν 1 ) + 2 π m ) .
s n / 2 = ( 2 π ν R ) - 1 ϕ n / 2 , n / 2 ( ν R ) .
s n / 2 = ( 2 ν R ) - 1 .
ϕ ( ν ) ψ τ ( ν ) ± π / 2 - 2 π ν K t

Metrics