Abstract

The power scaling of Er-Yb co-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers has been limited by the bottleneck effect of energy-transfer saturation between Yb ions and Er ions. The emerging method of Er-Yb co-doped fiber amplifiers pumped by Yb-doped fiber lasers is considered as an approach to enhance the threshold of the bottleneck effect. In this paper, we quantitatively characterize the threshold of the bottleneck effect via the method of extreme value analysis of the second-order derivative. The method facilitates the optimization of the amplifier configuration. Afterward, we numerically investigate the bottleneck effect of various Er-Yb co-doped fiber amplifiers off-peak cladding-pumped by ${{10}}\!\times\!\!\times \;{\rm{nm}}$ Yb-doped fiber lasers for what we believe, to the best of our knowledge, is the first time. The result shows that the most optimal configuration is long gain fiber over 20 m pumped by a 1020–1025 nm fiber laser, with more than two times the output limit of a conventional laser diode pumping scheme. The essential factors of an amplifier are discussed afterward, including the pump-launching direction, the optimization of large-mode-area fiber, the core-cladding ratio, the concentration of doping ions, the nonlinearity limit, and the distribution of the heat load.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

1 March 2021: A correction was made to the author listing.


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