Abstract

In this paper, an underwater fiber-optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and multimode interference (MMI) is presented for simultaneous measurement of salinity and pressure. This sensor is based on a single-mode-multimode-single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure with a gold film deposited on the middle single-mode fiber and the fiber structure is wrapped around an elastic cylinder to constitute a sensing head. In the fiber structure, the SPR region produces a resonance dip to measure salinity, and the independent MMI region achieves narrow and salinity-insensitive interference dips to measure pressure. Performance of the sensor is predicted by calculation, and the MMI spectrum is simulated by using the finite-difference beam propagation method. By experimental tests for salinity and pressure, the sensitivities of 0.36 nm/‰ and $-{1.42}\;{\rm nm}/{\rm MPa}$ are achieved, respectively, and the cross talk is also proved to be insignificant. This study provides an important application direction for SPR-MMI sensors and a prospective method for ocean detection.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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