Abstract

Recently, an optical scanning holographic system with a polarization directed flat lens was proposed to realize coaxial scanning holography (CSH). The advantage of CSH is its small form factor and the stability. However, the diffraction efficiency of the polarization directed flat lens cannot be 100%, and thus there is always zeroth order light in the scanning beam. The imperfect diffraction property of the polarization directed flat lens results in an incomplete scanning Fresnel zone plate. Consequently, the reconstructed image is blurred and noisy. In this paper, we compared different methods, including the back propagation, the phase correlation, and inverse filtering, for the hologram reconstruction. It is demonstrated that inverse filtering is the only method that can retrieve the high-frequency component of the hologram. However, additional noise also arises with the use of inverse filtering. Therefore, the imaging performance of CSH by using a polarization directed flat lens is inherently worse than that of conventional OSH.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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References

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2020 (5)

2019 (2)

Y. Zhang, T.-C. Poon, P. W. M. Tsang, and L. Wang, “Review on feature extraction for 3-D incoherent image processing using optical scanning holography,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat. 15, 6146–6154 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Liu and H.-H. Wen, “Optical scanning tilt holography,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 15, 6139–6145 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

A. Yan, Y. Wei, Z. Hu, J. Zhang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical cryptography with biometrics for multi-depth objects,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12933 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

Bai, X.

L.-Z. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, N.-N. Li, X. Bai, and Q.-H. Wang, “Multiple-image encryption based on optical scanning holography using orthogonal compressive sensing and random phase mask,” Opt. Eng. 59, 102411 (2020).
[Crossref]

Chan, A. C. S.

Chen, N.

Chen, W.-T.

Dobson, K.

Doh, K.

Duncan, B. D.

El Maghnouji, A.

Foster, R.

Hu, Z.

A. Yan, Y. Wei, Z. Hu, J. Zhang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical cryptography with biometrics for multi-depth objects,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12933 (2017).
[Crossref]

Indebetouw, G.

Kim, H.

Kim, T.

Kim, W. S.

Kim, Y. S.

Lam, E. Y.

Lee, C.-C.

Leportier, T.

Li, N.-N.

L.-Z. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, N.-N. Li, X. Bai, and Q.-H. Wang, “Multiple-image encryption based on optical scanning holography using orthogonal compressive sensing and random phase mask,” Opt. Eng. 59, 102411 (2020).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

P. W. M. Tsang, T.-C. Poon, and J. P. Liu, “Adaptive optical scanning holography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21636 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.-P.

Lo, Y.-H.

Lu, S.-H.

J.-P. Liu, D.-Z. Luo, and S.-H. Lu, “Spatial–temporal demodulation technique for heterodyne optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Eng. 68, 42–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, D.-Z.

J.-P. Liu, D.-Z. Luo, and S.-H. Lu, “Spatial–temporal demodulation technique for heterodyne optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Eng. 68, 42–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Liu, C.-C. Lee, Y.-H. Lo, and D.-Z. Luo, “Vertical-bandwidth-limited digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2574–2576 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nomura, T.

Ou, H.

Park, M. C.

Poon, T.-C.

J.-P. Liu, W.-T. Chen, H.-H. Wen, and T.-C. Poon, “Recording of a curved digital hologram for orthoscopic real image reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 45, 4353–4356 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, R. Wang, P. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Sectioning with edge extraction in optical incoherent imaging processing,” OSA Continuum 3, 698–708 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, T.-C. Poon, P. W. M. Tsang, and L. Wang, “Review on feature extraction for 3-D incoherent image processing using optical scanning holography,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat. 15, 6146–6154 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Yan, Y. Wei, Z. Hu, J. Zhang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical cryptography with biometrics for multi-depth objects,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12933 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. W. M. Tsang, T.-C. Poon, and J. P. Liu, “Adaptive optical scanning holography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21636 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Liu, S.-Y. Wang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Nonlinearity compensation and complex-to-phase conversion of complex incoherent digital holograms for optical reconstruction,” Opt. Express 24, 14582–14588 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. W. M. Tsang, J.-P. Liu, and T.-C. Poon, “Compressive optical scanning holography,” Optica 2, 476–483 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ou, T.-C. Poon, K. K. Y. Wong, and E. Y. Lam, “Enhanced depth resolution in optical scanning holography using a configurable pupil,” Photon. Res. 2, 64–70 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Shinoda, J.-P. Liu, P. Sheun Chung, K. Dobson, X. Zhou, and T.-C. Poon, “Three-dimensional complex image coding using a circular Dammann grating,” Appl. Opt. 50, B38–B45 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kim, Y. S. Kim, W. S. Kim, and T.-C. Poon, “Algorithm for converting full-parallax holograms to horizontal-parallax-only holograms,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1231–1233 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Lam, X. Zhang, H. Vo, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, “Three-dimensional microscopy and sectional image reconstruction using optical scanning holography,” Appl. Opt. 48, H113–H119 (2009).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Poon, T. Kim, and K. Doh, “Optical scanning cryptography for secure wireless transmission,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6496–6503 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, “Three-dimensional holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1506–1508 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. D. Duncan and T.-C. Poon, “Gaussian beam analysis of optical scanning holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 229–236 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z.

Saita, Y.

Schilling, B. W.

Sheun Chung, P.

Shinoda, K.

Shinoda, Y.

Storrie, B.

Suzuki, Y.

Tsang, P.

Tsang, P. W. M.

Y. Zhang, T.-C. Poon, P. W. M. Tsang, and L. Wang, “Review on feature extraction for 3-D incoherent image processing using optical scanning holography,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat. 15, 6146–6154 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Yan, Y. Wei, Z. Hu, J. Zhang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical cryptography with biometrics for multi-depth objects,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12933 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. W. M. Tsang, T.-C. Poon, and J. P. Liu, “Adaptive optical scanning holography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21636 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Liu, S.-Y. Wang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Nonlinearity compensation and complex-to-phase conversion of complex incoherent digital holograms for optical reconstruction,” Opt. Express 24, 14582–14588 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. W. M. Tsang, J.-P. Liu, and T.-C. Poon, “Compressive optical scanning holography,” Optica 2, 476–483 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsia, K. K.

Vo, H.

Wang, D.

L.-Z. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, N.-N. Li, X. Bai, and Q.-H. Wang, “Multiple-image encryption based on optical scanning holography using orthogonal compressive sensing and random phase mask,” Opt. Eng. 59, 102411 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Y. Zhang, T.-C. Poon, P. W. M. Tsang, and L. Wang, “Review on feature extraction for 3-D incoherent image processing using optical scanning holography,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat. 15, 6146–6154 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.-H.

L.-Z. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, N.-N. Li, X. Bai, and Q.-H. Wang, “Multiple-image encryption based on optical scanning holography using orthogonal compressive sensing and random phase mask,” Opt. Eng. 59, 102411 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

Wang, S.-Y.

Wei, Y.

A. Yan, Y. Wei, Z. Hu, J. Zhang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical cryptography with biometrics for multi-depth objects,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12933 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wen, H.-H.

Wong, K. K. Y.

Wu, M. H.

Yan, A.

A. Yan, Y. Wei, Z. Hu, J. Zhang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical cryptography with biometrics for multi-depth objects,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12933 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984), pp. 25–29.

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984), pp. 25–29.

Yoneda, N.

Zhang, J.

A. Yan, Y. Wei, Z. Hu, J. Zhang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical cryptography with biometrics for multi-depth objects,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12933 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.-Z.

L.-Z. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, N.-N. Li, X. Bai, and Q.-H. Wang, “Multiple-image encryption based on optical scanning holography using orthogonal compressive sensing and random phase mask,” Opt. Eng. 59, 102411 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, R. Wang, P. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Sectioning with edge extraction in optical incoherent imaging processing,” OSA Continuum 3, 698–708 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, T.-C. Poon, P. W. M. Tsang, and L. Wang, “Review on feature extraction for 3-D incoherent image processing using optical scanning holography,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat. 15, 6146–6154 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W.

Zhou, X.

L.-Z. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, N.-N. Li, X. Bai, and Q.-H. Wang, “Multiple-image encryption based on optical scanning holography using orthogonal compressive sensing and random phase mask,” Opt. Eng. 59, 102411 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Shinoda, J.-P. Liu, P. Sheun Chung, K. Dobson, X. Zhou, and T.-C. Poon, “Three-dimensional complex image coding using a circular Dammann grating,” Appl. Opt. 50, B38–B45 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. (2)

J.-P. Liu and H.-H. Wen, “Optical scanning tilt holography,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 15, 6139–6145 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Liu and S.-Y. Wang, “Stereo-lighting reconstruction of optical scanning holography,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 12, 1664–1669 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat. (1)

Y. Zhang, T.-C. Poon, P. W. M. Tsang, and L. Wang, “Review on feature extraction for 3-D incoherent image processing using optical scanning holography,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat. 15, 6146–6154 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Eng. (1)

L.-Z. Zhang, X. Zhou, D. Wang, N.-N. Li, X. Bai, and Q.-H. Wang, “Multiple-image encryption based on optical scanning holography using orthogonal compressive sensing and random phase mask,” Opt. Eng. 59, 102411 (2020).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

J.-P. Liu, D.-Z. Luo, and S.-H. Lu, “Spatial–temporal demodulation technique for heterodyne optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Eng. 68, 42–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optica (2)

OSA Continuum (1)

Photon. Res. (2)

Sci. Rep. (2)

P. W. M. Tsang, T.-C. Poon, and J. P. Liu, “Adaptive optical scanning holography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21636 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Yan, Y. Wei, Z. Hu, J. Zhang, P. W. M. Tsang, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical cryptography with biometrics for multi-depth objects,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12933 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984), pp. 25–29.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematical setup of coaxial scanning holography. HWP, half-wave plate; FG, function generator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; QWP, quarter-wave plate; GPL, geometric phase lens; PL, polarizer; BS, beam splitter; PDs, photodetector; L, lens; DAQ, data acquisition device.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Photos of the diffracted light behind the GPL. (a) When the incident light is off-center illuminated, the zeroth order (center), the RHCP order (right), and the LHCP (left) orders of the diffracted light are separated. At on-center illumination, the photos of (b) the RHCP light only, (c) LHCP light only, and (d) the interference pattern of the two lights.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Amplitude and (b) phase modulo $2\pi$ of the pinhole hologram.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Real part and (b) imaginary part of the hologram of 1951 USAF resolution target.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Phase modulo $2\pi$ of the ideal free-space transfer function. (b) Circular window function in the Fourier spectrum.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Reconstructed images of the hologram shown in Fig. 4. (a) Image reconstructed by back propagation. (b) Image reconstructed by correlation. (c) Image reconstructed by inverse filtering.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Phase modulo $2\pi$ and (b) amplitude of the experimentally obtained transfer function.

Equations (10)

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S + ( x , y , z , t ) = exp [ j ω 0 t j π ( x 2 + y 2 ) λ 0 ( z f g ) ] × exp [ ( x 2 + y 2 ) ( z f g ) 2 N A 2 ] ,
S ( x , y , z , t ) = exp [ j ( ω 0 + Ω ) t j π ( x 2 + y 2 ) λ 0 ( z + f g ) ] × exp [ ( x 2 + y 2 ) ( z + f g ) 2 N A 2 ] ,
I g ( x , y , z , t ) = I 0 + cos [ 2 π f g λ 0 ( z 2 f g 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) + Ω t ] × exp [ 2 ( z 2 + f g 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ( z 2 f g 2 ) 2 N A 2 ] ,
H c ( x , y ) = z T ( x , y ; z ) h g ( x , y ; z ) d z ,
h g ( x , y ; z ) = exp [ j 2 π f g λ 0 ( z 2 f g 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] × exp [ 2 ( z 2 + f g 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ( z 2 f g 2 ) 2 N A 2 ] .
E r ( x , y ) = H c ( x , y ) h r ( x , y ; z effc ) ,
h r ( x , y ; z effc ) = exp [ j π λ 0 z effc ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] ,
E r ( x , y ) = F 1 { F { H c ( x , y ) } exp [ j π λ 0 z effc ( f x 2 + f y 2 ) ] } ,
E c ( x , y ) = F 1 { F { H c ( x , y ) } × exp [ j × arg ( F { h exp ( x , y ) } ) ] } ,
E if ( x , y ) = F 1 { F { H c ( x , y ) } F { h exp ( x , y ) } + ε } ,

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