Abstract

Optical imaging is a powerful tool for nondestructive inspection, with high spatial resolution and low invasiveness. As light–material interactions vary a great deal depending on the wavelength, it is difficult to select the best imaging wavelength without prior knowledge of the optical properties of the material. To overcome this difficulty, we constructed a hybrid optical imaging system using three different wavelengths: near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and terahertz (THz) regions. The same imaging optics were integrated with different light sources and detectors. Depending on the light–material interaction and detection sensitivity, NIR and THz imaging indicated some potential for nondestructive inspection, but MIR imaging showed difficulty. A combination of NIR and THz imaging will be a powerful tool for optical nondestructive inspection.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. E. Bray and D. McBride, Nondestructive Testing Techniques (Wiley, 1992).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. M. T. M. Khairi, M. A. Md Yunus, M. Faramarzi, G. P. Sean, J. Pusppanathan, and A. Abid, “Ultrasound computed tomography for material inspection: principles, design and applications,” Measurement 146, 490–523 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. H. Skjelvareid, Y. Birkelund, and Y. Larsen, “Internal pipeline inspection using virtual source synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging,” NDT&E Int. 54, 151–158 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2002).
  7. M. Manley, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging: non-destructive analysis of biological materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 8200–8214 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. F. Barbin, G. ElMasry, D.-W. Sun, and P. Allen, “Non-destructive determination of chemical composition in intact and minced pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Food Chem. 138, 1162–1171 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Van Eerdenbrugh, M. Lo, K. Kjoller, C. Marcott, and L. S. Taylor, “Nanoscale mid-infrared imaging of phase separation in a drug–polymer blend,” J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 2066–2073 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Haase, N. Kröger-Lui, A. Pucci, A. Schönhals, and W. Petrich, “Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms,” J. Biophoton. 9, 61–66 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. M. Mittleman, “Twenty years of terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 26, 9417–9431 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Zhong, “Progress in terahertz nondestructive testing: a review,” Front. Mech. Eng. 14, 273–281 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Krügener, E.-M. Stübling, R. Jachim, B. Kietz, M. Koch, and W. Viöl, “THz tomography for detecting damages on wood caused by insects,” Appl. Opt. 58, 6063–6066 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Kato, S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, K. Imayama, and K. Kawase, “Non-destructive drug inspection in covering materials using a terahertz spectral imaging system with injection-seeded terahertz parametric generation and detection,” Opt. Express 24, 6425–6432 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Fukunaga and I. Hosako, “Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology,” C. R. Physique 11, 519–526 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Asada, S. Suzuki, and N. Kishimoto, “Resonant tunneling diodes for sub-terahertz and terahertz oscillators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4375–4384 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 242102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Ma, Y. Ma, and C. Li, “Infrared and visible image fusion methods and applications: a survey,” Inf. Fusion 45, 153–178 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Singh, M. Vatsa, and A. Noore, “Integrated multilevel image fusion and match score fusion of visible and infrared face images for robust face recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 880–893 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Kowalski, N. Palka, M. Piszczek, and M. Szustakowski, “Hidden object detection system based on fusion of THz and VIS images,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 124, 490–493 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (4)

K. Krügener, E.-M. Stübling, R. Jachim, B. Kietz, M. Koch, and W. Viöl, “THz tomography for detecting damages on wood caused by insects,” Appl. Opt. 58, 6063–6066 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Zhong, “Progress in terahertz nondestructive testing: a review,” Front. Mech. Eng. 14, 273–281 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, Y. Ma, and C. Li, “Infrared and visible image fusion methods and applications: a survey,” Inf. Fusion 45, 153–178 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. T. M. Khairi, M. A. Md Yunus, M. Faramarzi, G. P. Sean, J. Pusppanathan, and A. Abid, “Ultrasound computed tomography for material inspection: principles, design and applications,” Measurement 146, 490–523 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2016 (2)

2014 (2)

M. Manley, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging: non-destructive analysis of biological materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 8200–8214 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. H. Skjelvareid, Y. Birkelund, and Y. Larsen, “Internal pipeline inspection using virtual source synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging,” NDT&E Int. 54, 151–158 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. F. Barbin, G. ElMasry, D.-W. Sun, and P. Allen, “Non-destructive determination of chemical composition in intact and minced pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Food Chem. 138, 1162–1171 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kowalski, N. Palka, M. Piszczek, and M. Szustakowski, “Hidden object detection system based on fusion of THz and VIS images,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 124, 490–493 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

B. Van Eerdenbrugh, M. Lo, K. Kjoller, C. Marcott, and L. S. Taylor, “Nanoscale mid-infrared imaging of phase separation in a drug–polymer blend,” J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 2066–2073 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Withers and M. Preuss, “Fatigue and damage in structural materials studied by x-ray tomography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 42, 81–103 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

K. Fukunaga and I. Hosako, “Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology,” C. R. Physique 11, 519–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

R. Singh, M. Vatsa, and A. Noore, “Integrated multilevel image fusion and match score fusion of visible and infrared face images for robust face recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 880–893 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Asada, S. Suzuki, and N. Kishimoto, “Resonant tunneling diodes for sub-terahertz and terahertz oscillators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4375–4384 (2008).
[Crossref]

Abid, A.

M. T. M. Khairi, M. A. Md Yunus, M. Faramarzi, G. P. Sean, J. Pusppanathan, and A. Abid, “Ultrasound computed tomography for material inspection: principles, design and applications,” Measurement 146, 490–523 (2019).
[Crossref]

Allen, P.

D. F. Barbin, G. ElMasry, D.-W. Sun, and P. Allen, “Non-destructive determination of chemical composition in intact and minced pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Food Chem. 138, 1162–1171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asada, M.

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Asada, S. Suzuki, and N. Kishimoto, “Resonant tunneling diodes for sub-terahertz and terahertz oscillators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4375–4384 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barbin, D. F.

D. F. Barbin, G. ElMasry, D.-W. Sun, and P. Allen, “Non-destructive determination of chemical composition in intact and minced pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Food Chem. 138, 1162–1171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barrios, M. A.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, L. R.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Birkelund, Y.

M. H. Skjelvareid, Y. Birkelund, and Y. Larsen, “Internal pipeline inspection using virtual source synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging,” NDT&E Int. 54, 151–158 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. K.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bray, D. E.

D. E. Bray and D. McBride, Nondestructive Testing Techniques (Wiley, 1992).

Chalmers, J. M.

J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2002).

Collins, G. W.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eder, D. C.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Edwards, M. J.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

ElMasry, G.

D. F. Barbin, G. ElMasry, D.-W. Sun, and P. Allen, “Non-destructive determination of chemical composition in intact and minced pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Food Chem. 138, 1162–1171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Faramarzi, M.

M. T. M. Khairi, M. A. Md Yunus, M. Faramarzi, G. P. Sean, J. Pusppanathan, and A. Abid, “Ultrasound computed tomography for material inspection: principles, design and applications,” Measurement 146, 490–523 (2019).
[Crossref]

Field, J. E.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga and I. Hosako, “Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology,” C. R. Physique 11, 519–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Griffiths, P. R.

J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2002).

Gu, J.

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

Haase, K.

K. Haase, N. Kröger-Lui, A. Pucci, A. Schönhals, and W. Petrich, “Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms,” J. Biophoton. 9, 61–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hosako, I.

K. Fukunaga and I. Hosako, “Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology,” C. R. Physique 11, 519–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Imayama, K.

Jachim, R.

Jansen, C.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jones, O. S.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jördens, C.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kato, M.

Kawase, K.

Khairi, M. T. M.

M. T. M. Khairi, M. A. Md Yunus, M. Faramarzi, G. P. Sean, J. Pusppanathan, and A. Abid, “Ultrasound computed tomography for material inspection: principles, design and applications,” Measurement 146, 490–523 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kietz, B.

Kishimoto, N.

M. Asada, S. Suzuki, and N. Kishimoto, “Resonant tunneling diodes for sub-terahertz and terahertz oscillators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4375–4384 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kjoller, K.

B. Van Eerdenbrugh, M. Lo, K. Kjoller, C. Marcott, and L. S. Taylor, “Nanoscale mid-infrared imaging of phase separation in a drug–polymer blend,” J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 2066–2073 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kline, J. L.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

K. Krügener, E.-M. Stübling, R. Jachim, B. Kietz, M. Koch, and W. Viöl, “THz tomography for detecting damages on wood caused by insects,” Appl. Opt. 58, 6063–6066 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kowalski, M.

M. Kowalski, N. Palka, M. Piszczek, and M. Szustakowski, “Hidden object detection system based on fusion of THz and VIS images,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 124, 490–493 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kröger-Lui, N.

K. Haase, N. Kröger-Lui, A. Pucci, A. Schönhals, and W. Petrich, “Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms,” J. Biophoton. 9, 61–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kroll, J. J.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krügener, K.

Landen, O. L.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Larsen, Y.

M. H. Skjelvareid, Y. Birkelund, and Y. Larsen, “Internal pipeline inspection using virtual source synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging,” NDT&E Int. 54, 151–158 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

J. Ma, Y. Ma, and C. Li, “Infrared and visible image fusion methods and applications: a survey,” Inf. Fusion 45, 153–178 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, L.-J.

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

Lo, M.

B. Van Eerdenbrugh, M. Lo, K. Kjoller, C. Marcott, and L. S. Taylor, “Nanoscale mid-infrared imaging of phase separation in a drug–polymer blend,” J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 2066–2073 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

J. Ma, Y. Ma, and C. Li, “Infrared and visible image fusion methods and applications: a survey,” Inf. Fusion 45, 153–178 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ma, T.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

J. Ma, Y. Ma, and C. Li, “Infrared and visible image fusion methods and applications: a survey,” Inf. Fusion 45, 153–178 (2019).
[Crossref]

Manley, M.

M. Manley, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging: non-destructive analysis of biological materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 8200–8214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marcott, C.

B. Van Eerdenbrugh, M. Lo, K. Kjoller, C. Marcott, and L. S. Taylor, “Nanoscale mid-infrared imaging of phase separation in a drug–polymer blend,” J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 2066–2073 (2012).
[Crossref]

McBride, D.

D. E. Bray and D. McBride, Nondestructive Testing Techniques (Wiley, 1992).

Md Yunus, M. A.

M. T. M. Khairi, M. A. Md Yunus, M. Faramarzi, G. P. Sean, J. Pusppanathan, and A. Abid, “Ultrasound computed tomography for material inspection: principles, design and applications,” Measurement 146, 490–523 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D. M.

Murate, K.

Noore, A.

R. Singh, M. Vatsa, and A. Noore, “Integrated multilevel image fusion and match score fusion of visible and infrared face images for robust face recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 880–893 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pak, A.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palka, N.

M. Kowalski, N. Palka, M. Piszczek, and M. Szustakowski, “Hidden object detection system based on fusion of THz and VIS images,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 124, 490–493 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peterson, J. L.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Petrich, W.

K. Haase, N. Kröger-Lui, A. Pucci, A. Schönhals, and W. Petrich, “Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms,” J. Biophoton. 9, 61–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Piszczek, M.

M. Kowalski, N. Palka, M. Piszczek, and M. Szustakowski, “Hidden object detection system based on fusion of THz and VIS images,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 124, 490–493 (2013).
[Crossref]

Preuss, M.

P. J. Withers and M. Preuss, “Fatigue and damage in structural materials studied by x-ray tomography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 42, 81–103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pucci, A.

K. Haase, N. Kröger-Lui, A. Pucci, A. Schönhals, and W. Petrich, “Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms,” J. Biophoton. 9, 61–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pusppanathan, J.

M. T. M. Khairi, M. A. Md Yunus, M. Faramarzi, G. P. Sean, J. Pusppanathan, and A. Abid, “Ultrasound computed tomography for material inspection: principles, design and applications,” Measurement 146, 490–523 (2019).
[Crossref]

Raman, K.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reisecker, V.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.-J.

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

Romeike, D.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rygg, J. R.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scheller, M.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schönhals, A.

K. Haase, N. Kröger-Lui, A. Pucci, A. Schönhals, and W. Petrich, “Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms,” J. Biophoton. 9, 61–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sean, G. P.

M. T. M. Khairi, M. A. Md Yunus, M. Faramarzi, G. P. Sean, J. Pusppanathan, and A. Abid, “Ultrasound computed tomography for material inspection: principles, design and applications,” Measurement 146, 490–523 (2019).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, M. Vatsa, and A. Noore, “Integrated multilevel image fusion and match score fusion of visible and infrared face images for robust face recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 880–893 (2008).
[Crossref]

Skjelvareid, M. H.

M. H. Skjelvareid, Y. Birkelund, and Y. Larsen, “Internal pipeline inspection using virtual source synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging,” NDT&E Int. 54, 151–158 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stübling, E.-M.

Sugiyama, H.

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, D.-W.

D. F. Barbin, G. ElMasry, D.-W. Sun, and P. Allen, “Non-destructive determination of chemical composition in intact and minced pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Food Chem. 138, 1162–1171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Asada, S. Suzuki, and N. Kishimoto, “Resonant tunneling diodes for sub-terahertz and terahertz oscillators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4375–4384 (2008).
[Crossref]

Szustakowski, M.

M. Kowalski, N. Palka, M. Piszczek, and M. Szustakowski, “Hidden object detection system based on fusion of THz and VIS images,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 124, 490–493 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taylor, L. S.

B. Van Eerdenbrugh, M. Lo, K. Kjoller, C. Marcott, and L. S. Taylor, “Nanoscale mid-infrared imaging of phase separation in a drug–polymer blend,” J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 2066–2073 (2012).
[Crossref]

Teranishi, A.

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Town, R. P. J.

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tripathi, S. R.

Van Eerdenbrugh, B.

B. Van Eerdenbrugh, M. Lo, K. Kjoller, C. Marcott, and L. S. Taylor, “Nanoscale mid-infrared imaging of phase separation in a drug–polymer blend,” J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 2066–2073 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vatsa, M.

R. Singh, M. Vatsa, and A. Noore, “Integrated multilevel image fusion and match score fusion of visible and infrared face images for robust face recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 880–893 (2008).
[Crossref]

Viöl, W.

Wiesauer, K.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wietzke, S.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Withers, P. J.

P. J. Withers and M. Preuss, “Fatigue and damage in structural materials studied by x-ray tomography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 42, 81–103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiong, W.-H.

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, H.

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.-D.

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.-Y.

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhong, S.

S. Zhong, “Progress in terahertz nondestructive testing: a review,” Front. Mech. Eng. 14, 273–281 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Y.-F.

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T.-Y.

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

Acta Phys. Pol. A (1)

M. Kowalski, N. Palka, M. Piszczek, and M. Szustakowski, “Hidden object detection system based on fusion of THz and VIS images,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 124, 490–493 (2013).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

P. J. Withers and M. Preuss, “Fatigue and damage in structural materials studied by x-ray tomography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 42, 81–103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. R. Physique (1)

K. Fukunaga and I. Hosako, “Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology,” C. R. Physique 11, 519–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

M. Manley, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging: non-destructive analysis of biological materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 8200–8214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Compos. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 472–477 (2010).
[Crossref]

Compos. Struct. (1)

D.-D. Zhang, J.-J. Ren, J. Gu, L.-J. Li, J.-Y. Zhang, W.-H. Xiong, Y.-F. Zhong, and T.-Y. Zhou, “Nondestructive testing of bonding defects in multilayered ceramic matrix composites using THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Compos. Struct. 251, 112624 (2020).
[Crossref]

Food Chem. (1)

D. F. Barbin, G. ElMasry, D.-W. Sun, and P. Allen, “Non-destructive determination of chemical composition in intact and minced pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Food Chem. 138, 1162–1171 (2013).
[Crossref]

Front. Mech. Eng. (1)

S. Zhong, “Progress in terahertz nondestructive testing: a review,” Front. Mech. Eng. 14, 273–281 (2019).
[Crossref]

Inf. Fusion (1)

J. Ma, Y. Ma, and C. Li, “Infrared and visible image fusion methods and applications: a survey,” Inf. Fusion 45, 153–178 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Biophoton. (1)

K. Haase, N. Kröger-Lui, A. Pucci, A. Schönhals, and W. Petrich, “Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms,” J. Biophoton. 9, 61–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

B. Van Eerdenbrugh, M. Lo, K. Kjoller, C. Marcott, and L. S. Taylor, “Nanoscale mid-infrared imaging of phase separation in a drug–polymer blend,” J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 2066–2073 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Asada, S. Suzuki, and N. Kishimoto, “Resonant tunneling diodes for sub-terahertz and terahertz oscillators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4375–4384 (2008).
[Crossref]

Measurement (1)

M. T. M. Khairi, M. A. Md Yunus, M. Faramarzi, G. P. Sean, J. Pusppanathan, and A. Abid, “Ultrasound computed tomography for material inspection: principles, design and applications,” Measurement 146, 490–523 (2019).
[Crossref]

NDT&E Int. (1)

M. H. Skjelvareid, Y. Birkelund, and Y. Larsen, “Internal pipeline inspection using virtual source synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging,” NDT&E Int. 54, 151–158 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Pattern Recogn. (1)

R. Singh, M. Vatsa, and A. Noore, “Integrated multilevel image fusion and match score fusion of visible and infrared face images for robust face recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 880–893 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. R. Rygg, O. S. Jones, J. E. Field, M. A. Barrios, L. R. Benedetti, G. W. Collins, D. C. Eder, M. J. Edwards, J. L. Kline, J. J. Kroll, O. L. Landen, T. Ma, A. Pak, J. L. Peterson, K. Raman, R. P. J. Town, and D. K. Bradley, “2D x-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 195001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2002).

D. E. Bray and D. McBride, Nondestructive Testing Techniques (Wiley, 1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. NIR-ECLD, NIR external cavity laser diode; MIR-QCL, MIR quantum cascade laser; THz-RTD, THz resonant tunneling diode; FMs, flip mirrors; OAPM1 and OAPM2, off-axis parabolic mirrors; NIR-PD, NIR InGaAs photodetector; MIR-PM, MIR thermal power meter; THz-PE, THz pyroelectric detector; LIA, lock-in amplifier.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Knife-edge measurement. Knife-edge profile in (a) NIR imaging, (b) MIR imaging, and (c) THz imaging; (d) comparison of spatial resolution among NIR, MIR, and THz imaging.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Hybrid optical imaging of a metal blade in an optical chopper. (a) Optical photograph, (b) NIR image, (c) MIR image, and (d) THz image.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Hybrid optical imaging of a prepaid transportation card. (a) NIR image and (b) THz image. Sample size is 54 mm width by 85 mm height.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Hybrid optical imaging of air void of bulky resin material. (a) NIR image and (b) THz image.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Hybrid imaging of internal disconnection of power cable. (a) Optical photograph, (b) NIR image, and (c) THz image.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Imaging Performance of the Hybrid NIR/MIR/THz Imaging System

Metrics