Abstract

A graphene-embedded plasmonic rib waveguide (GEPRW) is designed for the mid-infrared electro-optic modulator. The mode characteristics and electro-optic (EO) modulation performances are simulated and optimized by using the finite element method. The results show that propagation length of ${{10}^3}\;{\rm mm}$ and figure of merit of ${{10}^6}$ are obtained by adjusting the bias voltage applied to the GEPRW. The EO wavelength tunings are ${-}{66.69}$ and ${-}{78.87}\;{\rm nm/V}$ for peak ${\rm L}$ and peak ${\rm R}$ in the loss spectra when $w = {3}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ and ${h_1} = {2}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$. For a 100 µm long GEPRW, the modulation depths of ${\sim}{96.4},{\sim} {97.1}, {\sim} {93.7}$, and ${\sim} {94.9}\%$, and FWHMs of ${\sim}{30}, {\sim}{74},{\sim}{34}$, and ${\sim}{59}\;{\rm nm}$ can be achieved when $\lambda = {1.55}$, 1.87, 1.89, and 2.23 µm. The EO modulator based on the GEPRW has a wide wavelength tuning range from 1.05 to 2.23 µm. It has high modulation depth, low insertion loss, and broad bandwidth, which can be used as EO tunable devices such as optical interconnects and optical switches.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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