Abstract

Since light is defined quantitatively as radiant energy evaluated according to the CIE photopic luminosity curve, ordinary light units are inappropriate whenever the organism’s spectral sensitivity differs markedly from the CIE curve. Examples of differing spectral sensitivities include those of animals, of color defective individuals, and curves for all individuals under low light levels or with large fields. Calculations are presented of the amount of error involved when units of light are used for these inappropriate conditions; alternative solutions to the problem are discussed.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, in Vision and Visual PerceptionC. H. Graham, Ed., (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), pp. 402–403.
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    [CrossRef]
  4. CIE, Compt. Rend., 14th Session, Bruxelles, 1959 (Central Bureau of CIE, Paris, 1960), Vol. A, p. 95.
  5. Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 38, 80 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. C. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).
  7. H. R. Blackwell, O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Report of the Colorimetry and Artificial Daylight Committee, CIE, 12th meeting, Stockholm, 1951 (Central Bureau of CIE, New York, 1951), Vol. I, Tech. Cmtte No. 7.
  9. J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1093 (1956).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. E. Barbrow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).
  11. J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 185 (1958).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 671 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. CIE, Compt. Rend. 15th Session, Vienna, 1963 (Central Bureau of CIE, Paris, 1964), Vol. B, p. 216.

1967

1964

1961

H. R. Blackwell, O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1958

1956

1952

Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 38, 80 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1951

L. E. Barbrow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).

1949

L. C. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).

Barbrow, L. E.

L. E. Barbrow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell, O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Blackwell, O. M.

H. R. Blackwell, O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Graham, C. H.

Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 38, 80 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, in Vision and Visual PerceptionC. H. Graham, Ed., (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), pp. 402–403.

Hsia, Y.

Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 38, 80 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, in Vision and Visual PerceptionC. H. Graham, Ed., (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), pp. 402–403.

Kinney, J. A. S.

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, Med. Res. Council, Spec. Rept. Ser. No. 200 (1935).

Thompson, L. C.

L. C. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.)

Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.) 38, 80 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London)

L. C. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 787 (1949).

Vision Res.

H. R. Blackwell, O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Other

Report of the Colorimetry and Artificial Daylight Committee, CIE, 12th meeting, Stockholm, 1951 (Central Bureau of CIE, New York, 1951), Vol. I, Tech. Cmtte No. 7.

Y. Hsia, C. H. Graham, in Vision and Visual PerceptionC. H. Graham, Ed., (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), pp. 402–403.

F. H. G. Pitt, Med. Res. Council, Spec. Rept. Ser. No. 200 (1935).

CIE, Compt. Rend. 15th Session, Vienna, 1963 (Central Bureau of CIE, Paris, 1964), Vol. B, p. 216.

CIE, Compt. Rend., 14th Session, Bruxelles, 1959 (Central Bureau of CIE, Paris, 1960), Vol. A, p. 95.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The scotopic luminance increase over the 2042°K standard for various color temperature sources that are photopically equal.9

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral sensitivity of the 10° periphery as a function of intensity level.11

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Increase in luminous efficiency at different photopically defined light levels for various color temperature sources: 6486°K (×); 5489°K (●); 4491°K (○); 2998°K (□); 238°K (+). The value in ft-L times 3.426 yields the value in cd/m2.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I The Relative Luminance of Different Color Temperature Sources Calculated for Subjects Whose Spectral Sensitivities Are Constitutionally Different from the CIE Photopic Luminosity Curve

Tables Icon

Table II Relative Luminous Efficiencies for Various Color Temperature Sources in the Mesopic Region

Tables Icon

Table III Relative Luminance of Different Wavelengths Calculated for Subjects Whose Spectral Sensitivities Are Constitutionally Different from the CIE Photopic Luminosity Curve

Tables Icon

Table IV Luminous Efficiences for Various Spectral Sources in the Mesopic Region Calculated Relative to a Luminous Efficiency of 1.0 for 2042°K

Equations (1)

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K 400 700 P λ V λ d λ ,

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