Abstract

The change in cathode spectral sensitivity of Westinghouse WX 4582 (S-11) and RCA 1P21(S-4) multiplier phototubes was measured across the visible spectrum, i.e., from 400 nm to 700 nm, for various temperature changes, both increases and decreases. Two methods were used for these measurements, viz., an adaptation of the Hardy spectrophotometer and the use of an environmental chamber. A decrease in temperature usually caused an increase in sensitivity in the short wavelength part of the spectrum and a decrease (as much as 90% at 700 nm) in the long wavelength part of the spectrum, with the crossover point (no appreciable change of sensitivity with change of temperature) at about 590 nm. An increase in temperature was accompanied by a reversal of spectral sensitivity changes, i.e., a decrease in the short wavelength part of spectrum and an increase in the long wavelength part of the spectrum. The change in cathode sensitivity varied with different types of phototubes and with phototubes of the same type.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, Trans. Inst. Radio Engrs. NS-7, 80 (1960).
  2. A. T. Young, Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Austin, Appl. Opt. 3, 584 (1964).
  4. Details of test equipment and procedures are contained in Visibility Laboratory report “Changes in Spectral Sensitivity of Multiplier Phototubes Resulting from Changes in Temperature”. A. R. Boileau, F. D. Miller, SIO Ref. 67-2, January1967, which is available on request.

1964

R. W. Austin, Appl. Opt. 3, 584 (1964).

1963

1960

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, Trans. Inst. Radio Engrs. NS-7, 80 (1960).

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, Appl. Opt. 3, 584 (1964).

Boileau, A. R.

Details of test equipment and procedures are contained in Visibility Laboratory report “Changes in Spectral Sensitivity of Multiplier Phototubes Resulting from Changes in Temperature”. A. R. Boileau, F. D. Miller, SIO Ref. 67-2, January1967, which is available on request.

Manning, J. J.

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, Trans. Inst. Radio Engrs. NS-7, 80 (1960).

Miller, F. D.

Details of test equipment and procedures are contained in Visibility Laboratory report “Changes in Spectral Sensitivity of Multiplier Phototubes Resulting from Changes in Temperature”. A. R. Boileau, F. D. Miller, SIO Ref. 67-2, January1967, which is available on request.

Murray, R. B.

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, Trans. Inst. Radio Engrs. NS-7, 80 (1960).

Young, A. T.

Appl. Opt.

R. W. Austin, Appl. Opt. 3, 584 (1964).

A. T. Young, Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Inst. Radio Engrs.

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, Trans. Inst. Radio Engrs. NS-7, 80 (1960).

Other

Details of test equipment and procedures are contained in Visibility Laboratory report “Changes in Spectral Sensitivity of Multiplier Phototubes Resulting from Changes in Temperature”. A. R. Boileau, F. D. Miller, SIO Ref. 67-2, January1967, which is available on request.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Band passes for the three filter–phototube combinations used for Miller’s test. The curve marked Photopic Sensitivity approximates the visual efficiency curve, i.e., the sensitivity of the daylight-adapted human eye. All of these curves are only approximations inasmuch as each phototube tested had its own spectral sensitivity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change of cathode spectral sensitivity of Westinghouse WX 4582 phototube Serial No. 61–09–026 for both increase and decrease in temperature. Crossover point where sensitivity is virtually independent of temperature is approximately 590 nm. Note the increasing effect of temperature change in longer wavelengths above crossover point.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes for spectral sensitivity following prolonged temperature change for RCA 1P21 phototube having internally supported cathode. Crossover point at approximately 580 mm. Note the much greater effect at the longer wavelength compared with the short wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensitivity change with temperature change for Westinghouse WX 4582, Serial No. 61–09–026, multiplier phototube. Note the hysteresis effect in gain of sensitivity when phototube temperature was decreased and then increased.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sensitivity change with temperature change for Westinghouse WX 4582, Serial No. 60–39–060, multiplier phototube. Note the much greater effect than that shown in Fig. 4. Note, also, the effect in the short wavelength region of the spectrum, i.e., increase of sensitivity as temperature was lowered to 0°C followed by decrease of sensitivity as temperature was lowered to −36°C. Hysteresis effect was considerably less than that shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sensitivity change with temperature change for two Westinghouse WX 4582 phototubes, Serial Nos. 62–48–029 and 60–44–083, showing great variability between phototubes, of the same type. These data are for short wavelength part of spectrum.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sensitivity change with temperature change for same phototubes of Fig. 6 but filtered for photopic response. Again, the great variability between phototube of the same type is shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sensitivity change with temperature change for same phototubes of Figs. 6 and 7 but filtered for the long wavelength part of the spectrum.

Equations (2)

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H = Σ S ( λ ) T ( λ ) H ( λ ) Δ λ ,
H = Σ S ( λ ) T ( λ ) H ( λ ) Δ λ .

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