Abstract

This report presents a brief resume of the underwater visibility problem and explains the circular polarization approach for improving contrast. Experimental apparatus was set up at the Morris Dam facility of the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena Annex, and tests were conducted both with and without polarization. Results show that use of the polarization technique increased the visibility range in turbid water by at least a factor of two.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Q. Duntley, A. R. Boileau, R. W. Preisendorfer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 499 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 217 (1963).
  3. W. A. Shurcliff, S. S. Ballard, Polarized Light (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1964), p. 105.
  4. R. O. Briggs, G. L. Hatchett, Ocean Sci. and Ocean Engr. 1, 2, 1284 (1965).

1965 (1)

R. O. Briggs, G. L. Hatchett, Ocean Sci. and Ocean Engr. 1, 2, 1284 (1965).

1963 (1)

S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 217 (1963).

1957 (1)

Ballard, S. S.

W. A. Shurcliff, S. S. Ballard, Polarized Light (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1964), p. 105.

Boileau, A. R.

Briggs, R. O.

R. O. Briggs, G. L. Hatchett, Ocean Sci. and Ocean Engr. 1, 2, 1284 (1965).

Duntley, S. Q.

Hatchett, G. L.

R. O. Briggs, G. L. Hatchett, Ocean Sci. and Ocean Engr. 1, 2, 1284 (1965).

Preisendorfer, R. W.

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, S. S. Ballard, Polarized Light (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1964), p. 105.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Ocean Sci. and Ocean Engr. (1)

R. O. Briggs, G. L. Hatchett, Ocean Sci. and Ocean Engr. 1, 2, 1284 (1965).

Other (1)

W. A. Shurcliff, S. S. Ballard, Polarized Light (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1964), p. 105.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometric representation of target and background radiance traversing distance r to receiver. bNr, = Tr bNo + Nr*.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representation of path radiance in field of view of receiver caused by ambient light field and scattered flux.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Circular polarization for elimination of backscatter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photons reflecting externally and internally from smooth scattering particles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Random multiple reflections of photons from rough surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental apparatus.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of photographs taken with and without circular polarizer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Tabulation of Underwater Visibility Experiment Data Obtained with and without Using Circular Polarizer

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C r = ( N t r - N b r ) / N b r ,
N b r = T r N b o + N r * ,
C r = ( N t r - N b r ) / ( T r N b o + N r * ) .
C r = ( 1 2 t N r - 0 ) / ( 0 + 0 ) .

Metrics