Abstract

Internal reflection prisms were used to produce a narrow angular range of high reflectivity within a laser cavity. The selectivity was obtained from the sharp angular variation of internal reflectivity near the critical angle. Angular mode selection of a Nd:glass normal laser was achieved by this critical internal reflection (CIR) technique. Two-dimensional angular mode selection was observed with two orthogonal Lummer–Gehrcke plates within the laser cavity.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3446 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Daly, S. D. Sims, Appl. Opt. 3, 1063 (1964).
    [CrossRef]

1964 (2)

J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3446 (1964).
[CrossRef]

R. Daly, S. D. Sims, Appl. Opt. 3, 1063 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Daly, R.

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3446 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3446 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Sims, S. D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3446 (1964).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of discrimination against off-axis rays in CIR prism. For simplicity, only the internal reflecting face of the prism is shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectivities in off-axis directions for various settings of incidence angle of axial ray about critical angle. δ is angular deviation of axial ray from critical angle setting. Refractive index is 2.315.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of angular dependence of reflectivity for one reflection to four reflections. Optical material is BSC-2 glass, having n = 1.505.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental arrangement for simultaneous measurement of beam divergence and energy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

One-dimensional mode selection configuration utilizing strontium titanate prism.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of half-power divergence angles with deviation from critical angle for strontium titanate prism mode-selection. Data taken with 5-mm diam output aperture and pumping 100% above threshold.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Laser threshold vs deviation from critical angle for CIR mode selection using SrTiO3 and single Lummer–Gehrcke plate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

One-dimensional mode selection configuration utilizing single Lummer–Gehrcke plate.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Beam divergence vs deviation from critical angle for single Lummer–Gehrcke plate mode selection. Data taken with 5-mm diam output aperture and pumping 33% above threshold.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

CIR mode selection configuration utilizing orthogonal Lummer–Gehrcke plates.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Mounting for orthogonal Lummer–Gehrcke plates.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Intensity distribution in far-field patterns as determined photoelectrically. The unmode selected and mode selected distributions are labelled by the open and closed circles, respectively. The dashed curve shows the theoretically diffraction limited distribution for comparison. Output diameter was 4 mm for all three cases.

Tables (1)

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Table I Optical Constants of Prism Materials

Equations (3)

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R p = tan 2 ( θ - θ 0 ) / tan 2 ( θ + θ 0 ) R s = sin 2 ( θ - θ 0 ) / sin 2 ( θ + θ 0 )
R p [ 1 - ( 2 n ) ³ / ( 1 - 1 / n 2 ) ¼ δ ½ ] 2 R s [ 1 - 2 ³ / n ½ ( 1 - 1 / n 2 ) ¼ δ ½ ] 2 .
R p { 1 - ( 2 n ) ³ / ( 1 - 1 / n 2 ) ¼ δ ½ [ ( sin ψ ) ½ + ( cos ψ ) ½ ] } 2 ,

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