Abstract

An echelle grating spectrograph is ideal for use in a rocket when high resolution is required because it occupies a minimum of space. The instrument described covers the range 4000–2000 Å with a resolution of 0.03 Å. It was designed to fit into the solar biaxial pointing-control section of an Aerobee-150 rocket. The characteristics of the spectrograph are illustrated with laboratory spectra of iron and carbon arc sources and with solar spectra obtained during rocket flights in 1961 and 1964. Problems encountered in analyzing the spectra are discussed. The most difficult design problem was the elimination of stray light when used with the sun. Of the several methods investigated, the most effective was a predispersing system in the form of a zero-dispersion double monochromator. This was made compact by folding the beam four times.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. R. Harrison, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 522 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Purcell, A. Boggess, R. Tousey, I.G.Y. Rocket Report Series, No. 1, p. 198, Natl. Acad. Sci.-Natl. Res. Council, Washington, D.C. (1958).
  3. J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, in Space Research III, W. Priester, Ed. (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1963), pp. 781–786.
  4. V. P. Kačalov, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Krymskyi Astrofiz. Obs., Akad. Nauk, SSSR 27, 5 (1962).
  5. V. P. Kačalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958); Bull. Acad. Sci., USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 9, 636, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 1177 (1959); Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 844 (1959).
  6. W. E. Behring, H. C. McAllister, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 127, 676 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. C. Miller, R. Mercure, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 124, 580 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. C. McAllister, “A Preliminary Photometric Atlas of the Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum from 1800 to 2965 Ångstroms”, Univ. of Colorado Printing Services, Boulder, Colorado (1960).
  9. S. Rosin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 451 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Brumberg, Compt. Rend. URSS 2, 467 (1935).
  11. V. H. Regener, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., Suppl. to Vol. 62, 9 (1936).
  12. H. M. Crosswhite, private communication.
  13. C. H. Corliss, W. R. Bozman, F. O. Westfall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 398 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Brückner, Photometrischer Atlas des Nahen Ultravioletten Sonnenspektrums, 2988 Å–3629 Å (Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1960).
  15. C. R. Detwiler, J. D. Purcell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 597 (1962).
  16. Charlotte E. Moore, M. G. J. Minnaert, J. Houtgast, “The Solar Spectrum 2935 Å–8770 Å”, NBS Monograph No. 61 (1966), U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
  17. M. Migeotte, private communication.
  18. C. E. St. John, C. E. Moore, L. M. Ware, E. F. Adams, H. D. Babcock, “Revision of Rowland’s Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths with an Extension to the Present Limit of the Infra-red”, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. (1928).
  19. C. E. Moore, “An Ultraviolet Multiplet Table”, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. No. 488, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1950).
  20. N. L. Wilson, R. Tousey, J. D. Purcell, F. S. Johnson, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 119, 590 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. H. Malitson, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 132, 746 (1960).
    [CrossRef]

1962

V. P. Kačalov, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Krymskyi Astrofiz. Obs., Akad. Nauk, SSSR 27, 5 (1962).

C. R. Detwiler, J. D. Purcell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 597 (1962).

1960

H. H. Malitson, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 132, 746 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1958

V. P. Kačalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958); Bull. Acad. Sci., USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 9, 636, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 1177 (1959); Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 844 (1959).

W. E. Behring, H. C. McAllister, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 127, 676 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1956

S. C. Miller, R. Mercure, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 124, 580 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1954

N. L. Wilson, R. Tousey, J. D. Purcell, F. S. Johnson, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 119, 590 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953

1952

1949

1936

V. H. Regener, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., Suppl. to Vol. 62, 9 (1936).

1935

E. M. Brumberg, Compt. Rend. URSS 2, 467 (1935).

Adams, E. F.

C. E. St. John, C. E. Moore, L. M. Ware, E. F. Adams, H. D. Babcock, “Revision of Rowland’s Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths with an Extension to the Present Limit of the Infra-red”, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. (1928).

Babcock, H. D.

C. E. St. John, C. E. Moore, L. M. Ware, E. F. Adams, H. D. Babcock, “Revision of Rowland’s Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths with an Extension to the Present Limit of the Infra-red”, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. (1928).

Behring, W. E.

W. E. Behring, H. C. McAllister, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 127, 676 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, A.

J. D. Purcell, A. Boggess, R. Tousey, I.G.Y. Rocket Report Series, No. 1, p. 198, Natl. Acad. Sci.-Natl. Res. Council, Washington, D.C. (1958).

Bozman, W. R.

Brückner, G.

G. Brückner, Photometrischer Atlas des Nahen Ultravioletten Sonnenspektrums, 2988 Å–3629 Å (Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1960).

Brumberg, E. M.

E. M. Brumberg, Compt. Rend. URSS 2, 467 (1935).

Corliss, C. H.

Crosswhite, H. M.

H. M. Crosswhite, private communication.

Detwiler, C. R.

C. R. Detwiler, J. D. Purcell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 597 (1962).

Garrett, D. L.

J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, in Space Research III, W. Priester, Ed. (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1963), pp. 781–786.

Harrison, G. R.

Houtgast, J.

Charlotte E. Moore, M. G. J. Minnaert, J. Houtgast, “The Solar Spectrum 2935 Å–8770 Å”, NBS Monograph No. 61 (1966), U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

Jakovleva, A. V.

V. P. Kačalov, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Krymskyi Astrofiz. Obs., Akad. Nauk, SSSR 27, 5 (1962).

V. P. Kačalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958); Bull. Acad. Sci., USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 9, 636, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 1177 (1959); Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 844 (1959).

John, C. E. St.

C. E. St. John, C. E. Moore, L. M. Ware, E. F. Adams, H. D. Babcock, “Revision of Rowland’s Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths with an Extension to the Present Limit of the Infra-red”, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. (1928).

Johnson, F. S.

N. L. Wilson, R. Tousey, J. D. Purcell, F. S. Johnson, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 119, 590 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Kacalov, V. P.

V. P. Kačalov, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Krymskyi Astrofiz. Obs., Akad. Nauk, SSSR 27, 5 (1962).

V. P. Kačalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958); Bull. Acad. Sci., USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 9, 636, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 1177 (1959); Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 844 (1959).

Malitson, H. H.

H. H. Malitson, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 132, 746 (1960).
[CrossRef]

McAllister, H. C.

W. E. Behring, H. C. McAllister, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 127, 676 (1958).
[CrossRef]

H. C. McAllister, “A Preliminary Photometric Atlas of the Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum from 1800 to 2965 Ångstroms”, Univ. of Colorado Printing Services, Boulder, Colorado (1960).

Mercure, R.

S. C. Miller, R. Mercure, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 124, 580 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Migeotte, M.

M. Migeotte, private communication.

Miller, S. C.

S. C. Miller, R. Mercure, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 124, 580 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Minnaert, M. G. J.

Charlotte E. Moore, M. G. J. Minnaert, J. Houtgast, “The Solar Spectrum 2935 Å–8770 Å”, NBS Monograph No. 61 (1966), U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

Moore, C. E.

H. H. Malitson, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 132, 746 (1960).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Wilson, R. Tousey, J. D. Purcell, F. S. Johnson, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 119, 590 (1954).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Moore, “An Ultraviolet Multiplet Table”, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. No. 488, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1950).

C. E. St. John, C. E. Moore, L. M. Ware, E. F. Adams, H. D. Babcock, “Revision of Rowland’s Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths with an Extension to the Present Limit of the Infra-red”, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. (1928).

Moore, Charlotte E.

Charlotte E. Moore, M. G. J. Minnaert, J. Houtgast, “The Solar Spectrum 2935 Å–8770 Å”, NBS Monograph No. 61 (1966), U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

Pavlenko, N. A.

V. P. Kačalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958); Bull. Acad. Sci., USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 9, 636, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 1177 (1959); Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 844 (1959).

Purcell, J. D.

C. R. Detwiler, J. D. Purcell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 597 (1962).

H. H. Malitson, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 132, 746 (1960).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Wilson, R. Tousey, J. D. Purcell, F. S. Johnson, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 119, 590 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, in Space Research III, W. Priester, Ed. (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1963), pp. 781–786.

J. D. Purcell, A. Boggess, R. Tousey, I.G.Y. Rocket Report Series, No. 1, p. 198, Natl. Acad. Sci.-Natl. Res. Council, Washington, D.C. (1958).

Regener, V. H.

V. H. Regener, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., Suppl. to Vol. 62, 9 (1936).

Rense, W. A.

W. E. Behring, H. C. McAllister, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 127, 676 (1958).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Miller, R. Mercure, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 124, 580 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Rosin, S.

Tousey, R.

H. H. Malitson, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 132, 746 (1960).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Wilson, R. Tousey, J. D. Purcell, F. S. Johnson, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 119, 590 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Purcell, A. Boggess, R. Tousey, I.G.Y. Rocket Report Series, No. 1, p. 198, Natl. Acad. Sci.-Natl. Res. Council, Washington, D.C. (1958).

J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, in Space Research III, W. Priester, Ed. (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1963), pp. 781–786.

Ware, L. M.

C. E. St. John, C. E. Moore, L. M. Ware, E. F. Adams, H. D. Babcock, “Revision of Rowland’s Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths with an Extension to the Present Limit of the Infra-red”, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. (1928).

Westfall, F. O.

Wilson, N. L.

N. L. Wilson, R. Tousey, J. D. Purcell, F. S. Johnson, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 119, 590 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

W. E. Behring, H. C. McAllister, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 127, 676 (1958).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Miller, R. Mercure, W. A. Rense, Astrophys. J. 124, 580 (1956).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Wilson, R. Tousey, J. D. Purcell, F. S. Johnson, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 119, 590 (1954).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Malitson, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, C. E. Moore, Astrophys. J. 132, 746 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend. URSS

E. M. Brumberg, Compt. Rend. URSS 2, 467 (1935).

Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR

V. P. Kačalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958); Bull. Acad. Sci., USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 9, 636, Izvestia Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 1177 (1959); Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. No. 8, 844 (1959).

Izvestia Krymskyi Astrofiz. Obs., Akad. Nauk, SSSR

V. P. Kačalov, A. V. Jakovleva, Izvestia Krymskyi Astrofiz. Obs., Akad. Nauk, SSSR 27, 5 (1962).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.

V. H. Regener, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., Suppl. to Vol. 62, 9 (1936).

Other

H. M. Crosswhite, private communication.

H. C. McAllister, “A Preliminary Photometric Atlas of the Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum from 1800 to 2965 Ångstroms”, Univ. of Colorado Printing Services, Boulder, Colorado (1960).

J. D. Purcell, A. Boggess, R. Tousey, I.G.Y. Rocket Report Series, No. 1, p. 198, Natl. Acad. Sci.-Natl. Res. Council, Washington, D.C. (1958).

J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, in Space Research III, W. Priester, Ed. (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1963), pp. 781–786.

Charlotte E. Moore, M. G. J. Minnaert, J. Houtgast, “The Solar Spectrum 2935 Å–8770 Å”, NBS Monograph No. 61 (1966), U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

M. Migeotte, private communication.

C. E. St. John, C. E. Moore, L. M. Ware, E. F. Adams, H. D. Babcock, “Revision of Rowland’s Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths with an Extension to the Present Limit of the Infra-red”, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. (1928).

C. E. Moore, “An Ultraviolet Multiplet Table”, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. No. 488, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1950).

G. Brückner, Photometrischer Atlas des Nahen Ultravioletten Sonnenspektrums, 2988 Å–3629 Å (Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1960).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The echelle spectrograph, mounted in the biaxial pointing control of the Ball Brothers Research Corporation (BBRC), in the forward section of an Aerobee-150 rocket. The nose cone is lifted to expose the instrument, as in flight operation. M. W. Frank of BBRC, left, and J. D. Purcell, right, are about to test its operation in the New Mexico sunlight by spinning it on the motor-driven turntable and testing its ability to lock on the sun.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The echelle spectrograph with the cover removed. Sunlight enters from the right through the predisperser system inside the cylinder. The echelle, prism to produce the cross-dispersion, and Littrow lens are seen at the left. Film from the supply container at the upper right is carried to the right around a roller, across the curved plate that determines the focal surface, around another roller, then to the left and into a cassette.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The optics of the zero-dispersion double-monochromator predisperser, removed from the cylindrical housing. At the extreme left end is the final lens that images the sun on the slit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The optical system of the echelle spectrograph in plan and elevation views. Lens L is an achromat of quartz and LiF, prism P is of fluorite, and field flattener L′ is of quartz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The shape of the focal surface required to correct for the longitudinal chromatic aberration after two passes through the lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The optical system of the zero-dispersion double-monochromator employed as a predisperser. Stray light was rejected by introducing the knife edge into the intermediate focal position in order to intercept all radiation of wavelengths longer than the desired limiting value.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The spectrum of a low-pressure rf-excited iron arc, as photographed by the echelle, flown in 1961.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The profile of Fe II 2739.545 Å recorded with the echelle flown in 1961; for comparison there is also shown the profile of the 6.65-m concave grating instrument used by Brückner to produce the Göttingen Solar Atlas, measured with Kr I 4274.97 Å, and scaled to 2700 Å. Solid curve: echelle Fe II (63) λ 2739.545 Å. Dotted curve: Göttingen Kr 4273.97 Å, scaled to 2740 Å.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The spectrum of a carbon arc crater, photographed with the echelle spectrograph flown in 1961. Ghosts and stray light associated with the 2478 Å line of C I are clearly seen, though not of great intensity. At long and short wavelengths the bands of CN from the arc stream are prominent.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The solar spectrum, photographed with the echelle spectrograph from an Aerobee-150 rocket on 29 August 1961. The reproduction is a composite of prints of several exposures.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The short wavelength end of the solar spectrum, photographed with the echelle spectrograph on 21 November 1964. This is the extreme limit reached with a resolution of the order of 0.05 Å, and marks the end of the region where the solar spectrum originates from the photosphere and is characterized by Fraunhofer lines.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

A short section at the center of order number 89 of the 1961 echelle, greatly magnified, together with microphotometer traces of two exposures.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

A portion of order number 73 of the 1961 echelle spectrum, centered three-fourths of the way to the right and enlarged about seven and one-half times. The heavy curve is a linear plot of intensity, as reduced from the echelle spectrum, and the light curve is the solar intensity from the Göttingen Solar Atlas, recorded with a 6.4-m concave grating. Upper curve: Göttingen Atlas. Lower curve: NRL rocket.

Tables (1)

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Table I Lines in Echelle Spectrum 3000–2097 Å

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