Abstract

Worst-case conditions for threshold injury on direct viewing of a cw He–Ne laser are defined. A transpupillary power of 50–100 μW for threshold injury to the eye is calculated on the basis of a heat conduction model and experimental observations.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. R. Solon, R. Aronson, G. Gould, Science 134, 1506 (1961).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. W. Flint, in Proceedings of First Conference on Laser Safety, 19–20 May 1966, G. W. Flint, Ed. (Martin Company, Orlando, Florida, 1966).
  3. A. Kohtiao, I. Resnick, J. Newton, H. Schwell, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 62, 524 (1966).
    [PubMed]
  4. A. Kohtiao, J. Newton, H. Schwell, I. Resnick, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 571 (1965).
  5. G. Westheimer, F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Wiesinger et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 907 (1956).
    [PubMed]
  7. G. Myer-Schwickerath, Light Coagulation (C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1960).
  8. W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 606 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Najac, B. Cooper, J. H. Jacobson, M. Shamos, J. M. Breitfeller, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 32 (1963).
  10. H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon Press, London, 1947), pp. 421–422.
  11. M. Salzmann, The Anatomy and Histology of the Human Eyeball (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1912), pp. 61–62.
  12. W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, R. C. Ruffin, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. Clarke, Ocular Effects of Laser Radiation, Part I, DASA Rept. 1574, 1964.

1966

A. Kohtiao, I. Resnick, J. Newton, H. Schwell, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 62, 524 (1966).
[PubMed]

1965

A. Kohtiao, J. Newton, H. Schwell, I. Resnick, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 571 (1965).

1963

H. Najac, B. Cooper, J. H. Jacobson, M. Shamos, J. M. Breitfeller, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 32 (1963).

1962

1961

L. R. Solon, R. Aronson, G. Gould, Science 134, 1506 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 606 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1956

H. Wiesinger et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 907 (1956).
[PubMed]

Aronson, R.

L. R. Solon, R. Aronson, G. Gould, Science 134, 1506 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breitfeller, J. M.

H. Najac, B. Cooper, J. H. Jacobson, M. Shamos, J. M. Breitfeller, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 32 (1963).

Campbell, F. W.

Carslaw, H. S.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon Press, London, 1947), pp. 421–422.

Chan, G.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 606 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A. M.

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, R. C. Ruffin, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. Clarke, Ocular Effects of Laser Radiation, Part I, DASA Rept. 1574, 1964.

Cooper, B.

H. Najac, B. Cooper, J. H. Jacobson, M. Shamos, J. M. Breitfeller, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 32 (1963).

Flint, G. W.

G. W. Flint, in Proceedings of First Conference on Laser Safety, 19–20 May 1966, G. W. Flint, Ed. (Martin Company, Orlando, Florida, 1966).

Geeraets, W. J.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 606 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Gould, G.

L. R. Solon, R. Aronson, G. Gould, Science 134, 1506 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerry, D.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 606 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Ham, W. T.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 606 (1960).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, R. C. Ruffin, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. Clarke, Ocular Effects of Laser Radiation, Part I, DASA Rept. 1574, 1964.

Jacobson, J. H.

H. Najac, B. Cooper, J. H. Jacobson, M. Shamos, J. M. Breitfeller, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 32 (1963).

Jaeger, J. C.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon Press, London, 1947), pp. 421–422.

Kohtiao, A.

A. Kohtiao, I. Resnick, J. Newton, H. Schwell, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 62, 524 (1966).
[PubMed]

A. Kohtiao, J. Newton, H. Schwell, I. Resnick, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 571 (1965).

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, R. C. Ruffin, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. Clarke, Ocular Effects of Laser Radiation, Part I, DASA Rept. 1574, 1964.

Myer-Schwickerath, G.

G. Myer-Schwickerath, Light Coagulation (C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1960).

Najac, H.

H. Najac, B. Cooper, J. H. Jacobson, M. Shamos, J. M. Breitfeller, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 32 (1963).

Newton, J.

A. Kohtiao, I. Resnick, J. Newton, H. Schwell, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 62, 524 (1966).
[PubMed]

A. Kohtiao, J. Newton, H. Schwell, I. Resnick, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 571 (1965).

Resnick, I.

A. Kohtiao, I. Resnick, J. Newton, H. Schwell, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 62, 524 (1966).
[PubMed]

A. Kohtiao, J. Newton, H. Schwell, I. Resnick, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 571 (1965).

Ruffin, R. C.

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, R. C. Ruffin, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. Clarke, Ocular Effects of Laser Radiation, Part I, DASA Rept. 1574, 1964.

Salzmann, M.

M. Salzmann, The Anatomy and Histology of the Human Eyeball (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1912), pp. 61–62.

Schmidt, F. H.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 606 (1960).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, R. C. Ruffin, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. Clarke, Ocular Effects of Laser Radiation, Part I, DASA Rept. 1574, 1964.

Schwell, H.

A. Kohtiao, I. Resnick, J. Newton, H. Schwell, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 62, 524 (1966).
[PubMed]

A. Kohtiao, J. Newton, H. Schwell, I. Resnick, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 571 (1965).

Shamos, M.

H. Najac, B. Cooper, J. H. Jacobson, M. Shamos, J. M. Breitfeller, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 32 (1963).

Solon, L. R.

L. R. Solon, R. Aronson, G. Gould, Science 134, 1506 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

Wiesinger, H.

H. Wiesinger et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 907 (1956).
[PubMed]

Williams, R. C.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 606 (1960).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, R. C. Ruffin, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. Clarke, Ocular Effects of Laser Radiation, Part I, DASA Rept. 1574, 1964.

A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, W. T. Ham, D. Guerry, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 606 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

A. Kohtiao, I. Resnick, J. Newton, H. Schwell, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 62, 524 (1966).
[PubMed]

H. Wiesinger et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 907 (1956).
[PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.

A. Kohtiao, J. Newton, H. Schwell, I. Resnick, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 122, 571 (1965).

Invest. Ophthalmol.

H. Najac, B. Cooper, J. H. Jacobson, M. Shamos, J. M. Breitfeller, Invest. Ophthalmol. 2, 32 (1963).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Science

L. R. Solon, R. Aronson, G. Gould, Science 134, 1506 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. W. Flint, in Proceedings of First Conference on Laser Safety, 19–20 May 1966, G. W. Flint, Ed. (Martin Company, Orlando, Florida, 1966).

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon Press, London, 1947), pp. 421–422.

M. Salzmann, The Anatomy and Histology of the Human Eyeball (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1912), pp. 61–62.

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, H. A. Mueller, R. C. Ruffin, F. H. Schmidt, A. M. Clarke, Ocular Effects of Laser Radiation, Part I, DASA Rept. 1574, 1964.

G. Myer-Schwickerath, Light Coagulation (C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1960).

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Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U s s = ( A P R / 8 K ) [ 2 ( l 2 + a 2 ) 1 2 + ( a 2 / l ) ln ( l 2 + a 2 ) 1 2 + l ( l 2 + a 2 ) 1 2 - l ] .
U s s = A P L / 2 π a K .
U s s = ( Q / 4 π K ) 0 2 π - l + l 0 a r d ϕ d z d r ( r 2 + z 2 ) 1 2 ,
U s s = ( A P R / 8 K ) [ 2 a + ( a 2 / l ) ln ( 1 + 2 l / a ) ] .

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