Abstract

Emerson’s procedure (the one in use at the National Bureau of Standards) for determining the absolute contours of optical flats was refined to increase the precision of the method and the speed of taking readings. The fringes were scanned over a photoelectric detector and the intensity profile presented on an oscilloscope. Setting accuracy of a fraction of a hundredth of a fringe was achieved. The data were gathered on a data logger. A complete set of data was obtained in about 5 min. The precision of determining a set of differences of two plates was 1600 fringe and the precision achieved in determining the absolute plate contours is estimated as 0.005 fringe. The problem of extending the method to 0.002 fringe is discussed.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. B. Emerson, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 49, 241 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. B. Spangenberg, Engineering Metrology Section, Metrology Division, Institute for Basic Standards, National Bureau of Standards, private communication, June24, 1965.
  3. W. Primak, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 375 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. L. Roesler, W. Traub, Appl. Opt. 5, 463 (1966); T. Duong, S. Gerstenkorn, J. M. Hilbert, J. Physique (in press).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. E. Ennos, Appl. Opt. 5, 51 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. S. Tomkins, M. Fred, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 641 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Primak, H. Szymanski, D. Keiffer, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 664 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. Goranson, L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, J. Kruger, Eds., Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, NBS Misc. Pub. 256 (1964), p. 154.

1966 (2)

1961 (1)

W. Primak, H. Szymanski, D. Keiffer, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 664 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

W. Primak, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 375 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

W. B. Emerson, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 49, 241 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

1933 (1)

R. W. Goranson, L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Adams, L. H.

R. W. Goranson, L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, W. B.

W. B. Emerson, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 49, 241 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Ennos, A. E.

Fred, M.

Goranson, R. W.

R. W. Goranson, L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Keiffer, D.

W. Primak, H. Szymanski, D. Keiffer, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 664 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Primak, W.

W. Primak, H. Szymanski, D. Keiffer, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 664 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. Primak, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 375 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

Spangenberg, D. B.

D. B. Spangenberg, Engineering Metrology Section, Metrology Division, Institute for Basic Standards, National Bureau of Standards, private communication, June24, 1965.

Szymanski, H.

W. Primak, H. Szymanski, D. Keiffer, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 664 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Tomkins, F. S.

Traub, W.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Primak, H. Szymanski, D. Keiffer, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 664 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

R. W. Goranson, L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (1)

W. B. Emerson, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 49, 241 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. B. Spangenberg, Engineering Metrology Section, Metrology Division, Institute for Basic Standards, National Bureau of Standards, private communication, June24, 1965.

E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, J. Kruger, Eds., Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, NBS Misc. Pub. 256 (1964), p. 154.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representation of the fringe systems.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Elevation. (b) Plan of the optical arrangement. A, air inlet; B, modified H100A4 lamp; C, metal cooling coil; D, interference filter; E, condenser lens; F, right angle prism; G, aperture; H, I, synchronous shutter driven by synchronous motor; J, collimator lens; K, dividing mirror; L, window; M, interferometer plates; N, hollow wall box for thermostat water circulation; O, aluminum transportation plate; P carriage table; Q, precision screw attached to encoder; R, telescope lens; S, aperture; T, synchronously driven octagonal sweep prism; U, swing mirror; V, alignment viewer; W, slit; X, photomultiplier cell; Y, rotating mount; AA, filament lamp; BB, condenser lens; CC, right and left wedge apertures; DD, synchronous shutter; EE, projection lens; FF, slit; GG, condenser lens; HH, ground glass diffusing screen; JJ, photomultiplier cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three sets of errors for the plate C upon plate A and the averaged Fourier series fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The three averaged Fourier series for the errors of the plates indicated. They have been shifted vertically to avoid confusion. As computed, the center points on the plates would have been set to zero.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The absolute contours of the three plates with the section meeting the tolerance ±0.01 fringe boxed. They are vertically displaced to avoid confusion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of quasi-rotation for finding the portion of the B plate meeting the specification ± 0.005 fringe.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ i = R i - ( i / n ) R n ,
i = ( n / R n ) δ i = ( n / R n ) R i - i .
i = ( 1 / B ) ( R i - A ) - i .
x = T sin α { 1 - [ ( 1 - sin 2 α ) / ( N 2 - sin 2 α ) ] 1 2 } ,
α = A + B , β = B + C , γ = C + A ,
A = α + γ - β , B = α + β - γ , C = β + γ - α ,

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