Abstract

This paper analyzes the work relating to the visibility curve as well as to the spectral efficiency of radiation in regard to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Methods of calculation of the visual efficiency for various types of light sources are presented. The results of an investigation of the brightness–luminance relation are analyzed. Recommendations regarding the photometric conditions for the small luminance range are indicated. Certain physiological characteristics of the spectral sensitivity of the eye are examined.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. N. I. Speranskaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya, 7, 710 (1959); Opt. Spectry. 7, 424 (1959).
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  7. F. W. Campbell, W. Alpern, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1084 (1962).
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  9. W. Arndt, A. Dresler, Licht 3, 231 (1933).
  10. M. Luckiesh, F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Engng. Soc. 31, 955 (1936).
  11. V. B. Veinberg, E. A. Lapinskaya, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 1, 169 (1941). V. B. Veinberg, L. I. Kalashnikov, E. A. Lapinskaya, Svetotekh. No. 8 (1937).
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  30. V. S. Khazanov, T. J. Kraiman, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 14(1966).
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    [CrossRef]
  43. H. Bodman, Lichttechnik 14, 394 (1962).
  44. V. V. Meshkov, Fundamentals of Light Engineering (GEI, Moscow, 1961), part 2.
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  46. A. B. Matveev, Svetotekh. No. 12 (1965).
  47. (Author not known), Illum. Engng. 30, 63 (1965).
  48. H. W. Horeman, Vision Res. 3, 121 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  49. H. W. Horeman, Vision Res. 5, 331 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  50. S. S. Stevens, A. L. Diamound, Vision Res. 5, 649 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. M. M. Epaneshnikov, Svetotekh. No. 10 (1965).
  52. G. T. Jonemura, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1030 (1962).
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  53. D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, Vision Res. 4, 135 (1964).
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  54. R. B. Marimont, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 800 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  55. C. Sanders, G. Wyszecki, Compt. Rend CIE P–63.6., 1963.
  56. Report of the Russian National Committee to 15th CIE Session.
  57. A. A. Volkenshtein, Low Brightness Visual Photometry (Izd. Energiya, Moscow, 1965).
  58. W. Adrian, S. Kokoshka, Lichttechnik 3, 32A (1965).
  59. D. A. Palmer, Nature 209, 276 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. P. K. Brown, G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 129, 41 (1955); W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 206, 1087 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. E. F. MacNichol, Vision Res. 4, 119 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. H. Ikeda, Vision Res. 5, 19 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. P. Witkovski, Vision Res. 5, 603 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  65. M. Jacobson, Quart. J. Exp. Physiol.
  66. R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1956).
  67. De Valois, Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology (Cold Spring Harbor Symposium, New York, 1965), Vol. 30, p. 567.
    [CrossRef]
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  73. A. L. Bysov, Electrophysiological Studies of Retina (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966).
  74. G. G. Demirtchoglian, Physiology and Pathology of Eye Retina (Medizina Press, Moscow, 1964).

1966 (3)

V. S. Khazanov, M. M. Zakhorova, D. M. Shishov, I. P. Chernjaev, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 13, (1966).

V. S. Khazanov, T. J. Kraiman, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 14(1966).

D. A. Palmer, Nature 209, 276 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (10)

W. Adrian, S. Kokoshka, Lichttechnik 3, 32A (1965).

A. B. Matveev, Svetotekh. No. 12 (1965).

(Author not known), Illum. Engng. 30, 63 (1965).

H. W. Horeman, Vision Res. 5, 331 (1965).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Stevens, A. L. Diamound, Vision Res. 5, 649 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Epaneshnikov, Svetotekh. No. 10 (1965).

V. S. Khazanov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 163, 238 (1965).
[PubMed]

V. S. Khazanov, Svetotekh. No. 3, 15 (1965).

H. Ikeda, Vision Res. 5, 19 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Witkovski, Vision Res. 5, 603 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (6)

J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 671 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hermans, Bull. Soc. Roy. Belge Elec. 80, No. 4, 3 (1964).

J. Kanzow, Farbe 13, 4/6 (1964).

D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, Vision Res. 4, 135 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. MacNichol, Vision Res. 4, 119 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Brown, G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (4)

H. W. Horeman, Vision Res. 3, 121 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. Bouma, H. W. Horeman, J. A. Roufs, Philips Tech. Rev. 25, 50 (1963).

S. S. Stevens, J. S. Stevens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 375 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. Granda, W. Biersdorf, Vision Res. 3, 431 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (6)

1961 (4)

S. S. Stevens, Science 133, 80 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. DeBoer, Illum. Engng. 56, 293 (1961).

J. B. DeBoer, Illum. Engng. 56, 293 (1961).

J. W. Onley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 667 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (2)

1959 (4)

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Speranskaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya, 7, 710 (1959); Opt. Spectry. 7, 424 (1959).

R. G. Hopkinson, Compt. Rend. CIE B, 290 (1959).

H. G. Sperling, W. G. Lewis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 983 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

V. V. Meshkov, Svetotekh. No. 12 (1958).

1955 (2)

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 129, 41 (1955); W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 206, 1087 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 507 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

1951 (1)

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).

1949 (1)

1947 (1)

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).
[PubMed]

1941 (1)

V. B. Veinberg, E. A. Lapinskaya, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 1, 169 (1941). V. B. Veinberg, L. I. Kalashnikov, E. A. Lapinskaya, Svetotekh. No. 8 (1937).

1936 (1)

M. Luckiesh, F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Engng. Soc. 31, 955 (1936).

1933 (3)

W. Arndt, A. Dresler, Licht 3, 231 (1933).

W. S. Stiles, V. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 113B, 496 (1933).

A. Munsell, L. Iloan, I. Goodlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 394 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1911 (2)

L. Bell, Electron World 57, 1163 (1911).

M. Luckiesh, Electron World 58, 450 (1911).

Adrian, W.

W. Adrian, S. Kokoshka, Lichttechnik 3, 32A (1965).

Alpern, W.

Arndt, W.

W. Arndt, A. Dresler, Licht 3, 231 (1933).

Bell, L.

L. Bell, Electron World 57, 1163 (1911).

Biersdorf, W.

A. Granda, W. Biersdorf, Vision Res. 3, 431 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bodman, H.

H. Bodman, Lichttechnik 14, 394 (1962).

Boton, P. M.

Bouma, H.

H. Bouma, H. W. Horeman, J. A. Roufs, Philips Tech. Rev. 25, 50 (1963).

Brown, J. L.

Brown, P. K.

P. K. Brown, G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bysov, A. L.

A. L. Bysov, Electrophysiological Studies of Retina (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966).

Campbell, F. W.

Chernjaev, I. P.

V. S. Khazanov, M. M. Zakhorova, D. M. Shishov, I. P. Chernjaev, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 13, (1966).

Crawford, V. H.

W. S. Stiles, V. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 113B, 496 (1933).

De Valois,

De Valois, Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology (Cold Spring Harbor Symposium, New York, 1965), Vol. 30, p. 567.
[CrossRef]

DeBoer, J. B.

J. B. DeBoer, Illum. Engng. 56, 293 (1961).

J. B. DeBoer, Illum. Engng. 56, 293 (1961).

Demirtchoglian, G. G.

G. G. Demirtchoglian, Physiology and Pathology of Eye Retina (Medizina Press, Moscow, 1964).

Diamound, A. L.

S. S. Stevens, A. L. Diamound, Vision Res. 5, 649 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodt, E.

E. Dodt, Berichte der 66 Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophtalmologischen Gesellschaft, Heidelberg1964 (Verlag von Bergmann, Bonn, 1965), Vol. 14.

Dresler, A.

W. Arndt, A. Dresler, Licht 3, 231 (1933).

Epaneshnikov, M. M.

M. M. Epaneshnikov, Svetotekh. No. 10 (1965).

Fletcher, D. E.

Goodlove, I.

Granda, A.

A. Granda, W. Biersdorf, Vision Res. 3, 431 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1956).

Hermans, R.

R. Hermans, Bull. Soc. Roy. Belge Elec. 80, No. 4, 3 (1964).

J. Zanen, R. Hermans, Rept. P–63.4 15th CIE Session, Vienna, 1963.

Hopkinson, R. G.

R. G. Hopkinson, Compt. Rend. CIE B, 290 (1959).

Horeman, H. W.

H. W. Horeman, Vision Res. 5, 331 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. Bouma, H. W. Horeman, J. A. Roufs, Philips Tech. Rev. 25, 50 (1963).

H. W. Horeman, Vision Res. 3, 121 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hurvich, L. H.

Hurvich, L. M.

D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, Vision Res. 4, 135 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, H.

H. Ikeda, Vision Res. 5, 19 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iloan, L.

Jacobson, M.

M. Jacobson, Quart. J. Exp. Physiol.

Jainski, P.

P. Jainski, Lichttechnik 12, 402, 555 (1960).

Jameson, D.

Jimenez, R.

J. Zanen, R. Jimenez, Vision Res. 2, 477 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Jonemura, G. T.

Judd, D. B.

Kanzow, J.

J. Kanzow, Farbe 13, 4/6 (1964).

Kartashevskaya, V. E.

V. E. Kartashevskaya, P. M. Tikhodeev, in Measurements in Light Engineering, J. Tikhodeev, Ed. (GEI, Moscow, 1962).

Khazanov, V. S.

V. S. Khazanov, M. M. Zakhorova, D. M. Shishov, I. P. Chernjaev, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 13, (1966).

V. S. Khazanov, T. J. Kraiman, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 14(1966).

V. S. Khazanov, Svetotekh. No. 3, 15 (1965).

V. S. Khazanov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 163, 238 (1965).
[PubMed]

V. S. Khazanov, T. J. Kraiman, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki, 14 (in press).

V. S. Khazanov, Vision Res. (in press).

Kinney, J. A. S.

Kokoshka, S.

W. Adrian, S. Kokoshka, Lichttechnik 3, 32A (1965).

Kraiman, T. J.

V. S. Khazanov, T. J. Kraiman, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 14(1966).

V. S. Khazanov, T. J. Kraiman, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki, 14 (in press).

Lapinskaya, E. A.

V. B. Veinberg, E. A. Lapinskaya, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 1, 169 (1941). V. B. Veinberg, L. I. Kalashnikov, E. A. Lapinskaya, Svetotekh. No. 8 (1937).

Le Grand, I.

I. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision (Chapman and Hall, London, 1957).

Lewis, W. G.

Luckiesh, M.

M. Luckiesh, F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Engng. Soc. 31, 955 (1936).

M. Luckiesh, Electron World 58, 450 (1911).

MacNichol, E. F.

E. F. MacNichol, Vision Res. 4, 119 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marimont, R. B.

Matveev, A. B.

A. B. Matveev, Svetotekh. No. 12 (1965).

Meshkov, V. V.

V. V. Meshkov, Svetotekh. No. 12 (1958).

V. V. Meshkov, Fundamentals of Light Engineering (GEI, Moscow, 1961), part 2.

Moss, F. K.

M. Luckiesh, F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Engng. Soc. 31, 955 (1936).

Munsell, A.

Onley, J. W.

Palmer, D. A.

D. A. Palmer, Nature 209, 276 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phares, L.

Roufs, J. A.

H. Bouma, H. W. Horeman, J. A. Roufs, Philips Tech. Rev. 25, 50 (1963).

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 129, 41 (1955); W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 206, 1087 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanders, C.

C. Sanders, G. Wyszecki, Compt. Rend CIE P–63.6., 1963.

Shishov, D. M.

V. S. Khazanov, M. M. Zakhorova, D. M. Shishov, I. P. Chernjaev, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 13, (1966).

Speranskaya, N. I.

N. I. Speranskaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya, 7, 710 (1959); Opt. Spectry. 7, 424 (1959).

Sperling, H. G.

Stevens, J. S.

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens, A. L. Diamound, Vision Res. 5, 649 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Stevens, J. S. Stevens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 375 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Stevens, Science 133, 80 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles, V. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 113B, 496 (1933).

Szmidielski, M.

G. Verriest, M. Szmidielski, Variation spectrale du seuil d’eclairement retinien energetique pour des contrastes positifs maculaires (in press).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).
[PubMed]

Tikhodeev, P. M.

V. E. Kartashevskaya, P. M. Tikhodeev, in Measurements in Light Engineering, J. Tikhodeev, Ed. (GEI, Moscow, 1962).

Veinberg, V. B.

V. B. Veinberg, E. A. Lapinskaya, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 1, 169 (1941). V. B. Veinberg, L. I. Kalashnikov, E. A. Lapinskaya, Svetotekh. No. 8 (1937).

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, M. Szmidielski, Variation spectrale du seuil d’eclairement retinien energetique pour des contrastes positifs maculaires (in press).

Volkenshtein, A. A.

A. A. Volkenshtein, Low Brightness Visual Photometry (Izd. Energiya, Moscow, 1965).

Wald, G.

P. K. Brown, G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witkovski, P.

P. Witkovski, Vision Res. 5, 603 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

C. Sanders, G. Wyszecki, Compt. Rend CIE P–63.6., 1963.

Yung, R.

R. Yung, in Sensory Communication, W. A. Rosensblith, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961).

Zakhorova, M. M.

V. S. Khazanov, M. M. Zakhorova, D. M. Shishov, I. P. Chernjaev, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 13, (1966).

Zanen, J.

J. Zanen, R. Jimenez, Vision Res. 2, 477 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Zanen, R. Hermans, Rept. P–63.4 15th CIE Session, Vienna, 1963.

Bull. Soc. Roy. Belge Elec. (1)

R. Hermans, Bull. Soc. Roy. Belge Elec. 80, No. 4, 3 (1964).

Compt. Rend. CIE B (1)

R. G. Hopkinson, Compt. Rend. CIE B, 290 (1959).

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

V. S. Khazanov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 163, 238 (1965).
[PubMed]

Electron World (2)

L. Bell, Electron World 57, 1163 (1911).

M. Luckiesh, Electron World 58, 450 (1911).

Farbe (1)

J. Kanzow, Farbe 13, 4/6 (1964).

Illum. Engng. (1)

(Author not known), Illum. Engng. 30, 63 (1965).

Illum. Engng. (2)

J. B. DeBoer, Illum. Engng. 56, 293 (1961).

J. B. DeBoer, Illum. Engng. 56, 293 (1961).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (13)

J. Physiol. (3)

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 129, 41 (1955); W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 206, 1087 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).
[PubMed]

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. 112, 114 (1951).

Licht (1)

W. Arndt, A. Dresler, Licht 3, 231 (1933).

Lichttechnik (3)

P. Jainski, Lichttechnik 12, 402, 555 (1960).

W. Adrian, S. Kokoshka, Lichttechnik 3, 32A (1965).

H. Bodman, Lichttechnik 14, 394 (1962).

Nature (1)

D. A. Palmer, Nature 209, 276 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Opt. i Spektroskopiya (1)

N. I. Speranskaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya, 7, 710 (1959); Opt. Spectry. 7, 424 (1959).

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

H. Bouma, H. W. Horeman, J. A. Roufs, Philips Tech. Rev. 25, 50 (1963).

Probl. Fiziol. Optiki (3)

V. B. Veinberg, E. A. Lapinskaya, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 1, 169 (1941). V. B. Veinberg, L. I. Kalashnikov, E. A. Lapinskaya, Svetotekh. No. 8 (1937).

V. S. Khazanov, M. M. Zakhorova, D. M. Shishov, I. P. Chernjaev, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 13, (1966).

V. S. Khazanov, T. J. Kraiman, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki 14(1966).

Proc. Roy. Soc. London (1)

W. S. Stiles, V. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 113B, 496 (1933).

Science (2)

P. K. Brown, G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Stevens, Science 133, 80 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svetotekh. (4)

V. S. Khazanov, Svetotekh. No. 3, 15 (1965).

V. V. Meshkov, Svetotekh. No. 12 (1958).

A. B. Matveev, Svetotekh. No. 12 (1965).

M. M. Epaneshnikov, Svetotekh. No. 10 (1965).

Trans. Illum. Engng. Soc. (1)

M. Luckiesh, F. K. Moss, Trans. Illum. Engng. Soc. 31, 955 (1936).

Vision Res. (9)

J. Zanen, R. Jimenez, Vision Res. 2, 477 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, Vision Res. 4, 135 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Horeman, Vision Res. 3, 121 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Horeman, Vision Res. 5, 331 (1965).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Stevens, A. L. Diamound, Vision Res. 5, 649 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Granda, W. Biersdorf, Vision Res. 3, 431 (1963).
[CrossRef]

E. F. MacNichol, Vision Res. 4, 119 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ikeda, Vision Res. 5, 19 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Witkovski, Vision Res. 5, 603 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other (21)

M. Jacobson, Quart. J. Exp. Physiol.

R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1956).

De Valois, Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology (Cold Spring Harbor Symposium, New York, 1965), Vol. 30, p. 567.
[CrossRef]

R. Yung, in Sensory Communication, W. A. Rosensblith, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961).

C. H. Graham, Ed., Vision and Visual Perception (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965).

Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology Sensory Receptors (Cold Spring Harbor Symposium, New York, 1965), Vol. 30, p. 301.

E. Dodt, Berichte der 66 Zusammenkunft der Deutschen Ophtalmologischen Gesellschaft, Heidelberg1964 (Verlag von Bergmann, Bonn, 1965), Vol. 14.

A. L. Bysov, Electrophysiological Studies of Retina (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966).

G. G. Demirtchoglian, Physiology and Pathology of Eye Retina (Medizina Press, Moscow, 1964).

V. V. Meshkov, Fundamentals of Light Engineering (GEI, Moscow, 1961), part 2.

I. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision (Chapman and Hall, London, 1957).

V. S. Khazanov, Vision Res. (in press).

J. Zanen, R. Hermans, Rept. P–63.4 15th CIE Session, Vienna, 1963.

V. S. Khazanov, T. J. Kraiman, Probl. Fiziol. Optiki, 14 (in press).

G. Verriest, M. Szmidielski, Variation spectrale du seuil d’eclairement retinien energetique pour des contrastes positifs maculaires (in press).

C. Sanders, G. Wyszecki, Compt. Rend CIE P–63.6., 1963.

Report of the Russian National Committee to 15th CIE Session.

A. A. Volkenshtein, Low Brightness Visual Photometry (Izd. Energiya, Moscow, 1965).

V. E. Kartashevskaya, P. M. Tikhodeev, in Measurements in Light Engineering, J. Tikhodeev, Ed. (GEI, Moscow, 1962).

Secretariat Rept. E–1.4.1 CIE, 1959.

Secretariat Rept. E–1.4.1 CIE, 1963.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Visibility curves for 10° field (×××) CIE 2° field of 1931 (…), and Judd’s 2° field of 151 (…).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative acuity spectral efficiency of monochromatic radiation. Average for seven observers. Contrast —100 %; threshold luminance level—about 0.5 nit (α = 1); threshold luminance level—about 25 nit (α = 0.5).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative contrast spectral efficiency of monochromatic radiations. …▲… K = 9.5 % average for four observers, — K = 1.2 % average for four observers, —×— K = 0.06 % average for five observers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative contrast spectral efficiency of monochromatic radiations. Stevens’ results37—the curve obtained with the observer’s adaptation to the luminance of the field which is being measured.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The dependency of the factor of brightness function degree on the field luminance. 1—Stevens’ results, 2—Hopkinson’s results, 3—Stevens’ results, n—the factor degree, L—luminance of the preliminary adaptation for curve 3, or background luminance for curves 1 and 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The curves of constant values for luminance and brightness relation (Cxy)—Sanders and Wyszecki results.55

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photometric field shape when performing photometric measurements of equivalent luminances.

Tables (2)

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Table II Transmission Coefficients for Light Filters

Equations (2)

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K 10° 645 lm / W = K 683 lm / W ; K 10° / K = 0.94.
n = 0 E λ S λ d λ 0 E λ a V λ d λ 0 E λ V λ d λ 0 E λ a S λ d λ ,

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