Abstract

The steps in reproducing evaporograph images are discussed. An analysis of signal and noise is given for different stages of the evaporograph process. The factors which limit the threshold sensitivity and resolving power of the evaporograph transducer are determined.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. F. Herschel, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 131, 52 (1840).
  2. M. Czerny, Z. Physik. 53, 1 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. W. McDaniel, D. Z. Robinson, Appl. Opt. 1, 311 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. P. Faerman, V. N. Sintsov, K. B. Popova, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #11, 27 (1962).
  5. G. W. McDaniel, A. P. DiMattia, Appl. Opt. 1, 483 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. B. Levitin, N. G. Myasnikova, K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, Vestn. Elektropromysh 34, 18 (1963).
  7. K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Astron. Zh. 41, 110 (1964).
  8. A. A. Mak, K. B. Popova, D. S. Prilezhaev, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 11 (1964).
  9. V. N. Sintsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektr. 4, 503 (1966).
  10. V. N. Sintsov, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #12, 1 (1964).
  11. R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), Chap. 5.
  12. H. Kubota, in Progress in Optics (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961), Vol. 1, p. 211.
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. B. Popova, V. V. Makhov, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 1 (1962).
  14. A. Vasko, Czechoslovak. J. Phys. B12, 670 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. T. Ashcheulov, Zh. Nauk i Prikl. Fot. i Kinem. 5, 148 (1960).
  16. W. R. Blevin, W. J. Brown, Metrologia 2, 139 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1966 (2)

V. N. Sintsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektr. 4, 503 (1966).

W. R. Blevin, W. J. Brown, Metrologia 2, 139 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (3)

K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Astron. Zh. 41, 110 (1964).

A. A. Mak, K. B. Popova, D. S. Prilezhaev, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 11 (1964).

V. N. Sintsov, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #12, 1 (1964).

1963 (1)

I. B. Levitin, N. G. Myasnikova, K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, Vestn. Elektropromysh 34, 18 (1963).

1962 (5)

K. B. Popova, V. V. Makhov, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 1 (1962).

A. Vasko, Czechoslovak. J. Phys. B12, 670 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. W. McDaniel, D. Z. Robinson, Appl. Opt. 1, 311 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Faerman, V. N. Sintsov, K. B. Popova, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #11, 27 (1962).

G. W. McDaniel, A. P. DiMattia, Appl. Opt. 1, 483 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

A. T. Ashcheulov, Zh. Nauk i Prikl. Fot. i Kinem. 5, 148 (1960).

1929 (1)

M. Czerny, Z. Physik. 53, 1 (1929).
[CrossRef]

1840 (1)

J. W. F. Herschel, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 131, 52 (1840).

Ashcheulov, A. T.

A. T. Ashcheulov, Zh. Nauk i Prikl. Fot. i Kinem. 5, 148 (1960).

Blevin, W. R.

W. R. Blevin, W. J. Brown, Metrologia 2, 139 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. J.

W. R. Blevin, W. J. Brown, Metrologia 2, 139 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Chasmar, R. P.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), Chap. 5.

Czerny, M.

M. Czerny, Z. Physik. 53, 1 (1929).
[CrossRef]

DiMattia, A. P.

Faerman, G. P.

K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Astron. Zh. 41, 110 (1964).

A. A. Mak, K. B. Popova, D. S. Prilezhaev, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 11 (1964).

G. P. Faerman, V. N. Sintsov, K. B. Popova, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #11, 27 (1962).

Herschel, J. W. F.

J. W. F. Herschel, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 131, 52 (1840).

Jones, F. E.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), Chap. 5.

Kubota, H.

H. Kubota, in Progress in Optics (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961), Vol. 1, p. 211.
[CrossRef]

Levitin, I. B.

I. B. Levitin, N. G. Myasnikova, K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, Vestn. Elektropromysh 34, 18 (1963).

Mak, A. A.

A. A. Mak, K. B. Popova, D. S. Prilezhaev, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 11 (1964).

Makhov, V. V.

K. B. Popova, V. V. Makhov, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 1 (1962).

McDaniel, G. W.

Myasnikova, N. G.

I. B. Levitin, N. G. Myasnikova, K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, Vestn. Elektropromysh 34, 18 (1963).

Popova, K. B.

A. A. Mak, K. B. Popova, D. S. Prilezhaev, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 11 (1964).

K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Astron. Zh. 41, 110 (1964).

I. B. Levitin, N. G. Myasnikova, K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, Vestn. Elektropromysh 34, 18 (1963).

G. P. Faerman, V. N. Sintsov, K. B. Popova, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #11, 27 (1962).

K. B. Popova, V. V. Makhov, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 1 (1962).

Prilezhaev, D. S.

A. A. Mak, K. B. Popova, D. S. Prilezhaev, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 11 (1964).

Robinson, D. Z.

Sintsov, V. N.

V. N. Sintsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektr. 4, 503 (1966).

V. N. Sintsov, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #12, 1 (1964).

A. A. Mak, K. B. Popova, D. S. Prilezhaev, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 11 (1964).

K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Astron. Zh. 41, 110 (1964).

I. B. Levitin, N. G. Myasnikova, K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, Vestn. Elektropromysh 34, 18 (1963).

G. P. Faerman, V. N. Sintsov, K. B. Popova, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #11, 27 (1962).

Smith, R. A.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), Chap. 5.

Vasko, A.

A. Vasko, Czechoslovak. J. Phys. B12, 670 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Zh. (1)

K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Astron. Zh. 41, 110 (1964).

Czechoslovak. J. Phys. (1)

A. Vasko, Czechoslovak. J. Phys. B12, 670 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

W. R. Blevin, W. J. Brown, Metrologia 2, 139 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mekh. Promysh. (4)

K. B. Popova, V. V. Makhov, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 1 (1962).

V. N. Sintsov, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #12, 1 (1964).

A. A. Mak, K. B. Popova, D. S. Prilezhaev, V. N. Sintsov, G. P. Faerman, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #9, 11 (1964).

G. P. Faerman, V. N. Sintsov, K. B. Popova, Opt. Mekh. Promysh. #11, 27 (1962).

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (1)

J. W. F. Herschel, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 131, 52 (1840).

Vestn. Elektropromysh (1)

I. B. Levitin, N. G. Myasnikova, K. B. Popova, V. N. Sintsov, Vestn. Elektropromysh 34, 18 (1963).

Z. Physik. (1)

M. Czerny, Z. Physik. 53, 1 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Nauk i Prikl. Fot. i Kinem. (1)

A. T. Ashcheulov, Zh. Nauk i Prikl. Fot. i Kinem. 5, 148 (1960).

Zh. Prikl. Spektr. (1)

V. N. Sintsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektr. 4, 503 (1966).

Other (2)

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), Chap. 5.

H. Kubota, in Progress in Optics (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961), Vol. 1, p. 211.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Distribution of temperature T0 along the length of a temperature wedge, l; TB—temperature of the background; ΔT0—difference in temperature between parts of the wedge and the background, (b) Dependence of output signal Δi (photocurrent in photometric reading of the line image) upon input signal ΔT0; S/N—signal-to-noise ratio; R—load resistance of the photoelectron multiplier of the microphotometer; u ¯ N 2—mean square value of the voltage of the varying component of the amplifier signal; ib—signal for microphotometric reading of the image of the background.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation in output signal Δi in the oil condensation process. ΔT0—input signal. Time (sec) from inception of condensation: (1)6; (2)9; (3)12; (4)15; (5)18; (6)21; and (7) 24. Type of photographic emulsion: (a) panchromatic, γ = 1.6; (b) panchromatic, γ = 3.2; and (c) orthochromatic, γ = 3.0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal-to-noise ratio S/N (in the image of the background) as a function of thickness of the oil film d, for different levels of input signal ΔT0°C: (1) 25; (2) 10; (3) 5; (4) 2; and (5) 1. Type of photographic emulsion: (a) panchromatic, γ = 1.6; (b) panchromatic, γ = 3.2; and (c) orthochromatic, γ = 3.0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frequency–response characteristic of a diffraction-limited lens having a circular pupil with a relative aperture 1:2 and wavelength 10 μ; N—spatial frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Limiting resolution Nmax as a function of wavelength of the recorded radiation λ for diffraction-limited lens with a circular pupil of relative aperture 1:2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coefficient of transfer of contrast T in the temperature image forming step as a function of the period of a square temperature grating Γ expressed in units of L0; L0 the characteristic length, is a function of the thermal conductivity in the plane of the sensitive element of the transducer.14

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Frequency reponse characteristic of the evaporograph transducer in combination with the catadioptric objective of the evaporograph, described in Ref. 4.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Period of Halflife Smoothing in Sec, of a Sinusoidal Oil Profile as a Function of Line Frequency and Initial Thickness of the Oil Layer (for an Oil Viscosity of 2 cP)

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