Abstract

A history is presented of measurements of solar vacuum uv and soft x radiation made by rocket and satellite-borne instruments in the U.S.S.R. The origin and mechanism of the production of solar x rays are discussed.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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  2. B. Edlén, Z. Astrophys. 22, 30 (1942).
  3. V. L. Ginzburg, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 52, 491 (1946).
  4. I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 33, 333 (1946).
  5. S. E. Khaikin, B. M. Chikhachev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 58, 1923 (1947).
  6. I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 22, 249 (1945).
  7. I. S. Shklovskii, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 4, 80 (1949).
  8. R. Woolley, C. W. Allen, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 108, 292 (1948).
  9. W. B. Baum, F. Johnson, J. Oberly, C. Rockwood, C. Strain, R. Tousey, Phys. Rev. 70, 781 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hopfield, H. Clearman, Phys. Rev. 73, 877 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. R. Burnight, Phys. Rev. 76, 1965 (1949).
  12. H. Friedman, S. Lichtmann, E. Bayram, Phys. Rev. 83, 1025 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. V. Yakovleva et al., in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 14.
  14. V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958).
  15. V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 8, 1177 (1959).
  16. V. P. Kachalov, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 5 (1962).
  17. V. P. Kachalov, M. Z. Khokhlov, V. L. Khokhlova, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 44 (1962).
  18. V. P. Kachalov, Astron. Zh. 39, 977 (1962).
  19. G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1105 (1958).
  20. A. V. Bruns, V. K. Prokofev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 11.
  21. A. B. Severnyi, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 23, 311 (1960).
  22. T. V. Kazachevskaya, V. A. Arkhangelskaya, G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, V. S. Lebedev, T. K. Razumova, A. V. Chudaikin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 13.
  23. G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 45 (1961).
  24. G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 39, 277 (1962).
  25. G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 828 (1961).
  26. G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya 2, 425 (1962).
  27. G. S. Ivanov-Kholodny, G. M. Nicolskii, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 787.
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  30. S. L. Mandelstam, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 46, 145 (1952).
  31. S. L. Mandelstam, A. I. Efremov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 63, 163 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. M. Kasatkin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 15.
  33. S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.
  34. G. Chodil, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, F. D. Seward, C. D. Swift, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 605 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. Mandelstam, B. Vasilyev, J. Voronko, I. Tindo, A. Shurygin, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 822.
  36. A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, O. P. Efimov, A. A. Lebedev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.
  37. A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, M. A. Ivanov, V. N. Nikiforov, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.
  38. S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, B. N. Vasilev, A. I. Shurygin, in Artificial Earth Satellites(1961), No. 11.
  39. I. P. Tindo, in Studies of Outer Space (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1965), p. 533.
  40. B. N. Vasilev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 748 (1966).
  41. S. L. Mandelstam, Space Sci. Rev. 4, 587 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  42. T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, R. W. Kreplin, R. L. Blake, A. E. Unzicker, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 4, 228 (1961).
  43. S. L. Mandelstam, Yu. K. Voronko, I. P. Tindo, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 142, 177 (1962).
  44. I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, G. S. Cheremukhin, Kosrnich. Issled 5, 276 (1967).
  45. I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, Kosmich. Issled. 2, 290 (1964).
  46. R. Tousey, Quart. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 5, 123 (1964).
  47. R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 142, 1 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  48. G. Elwert, Z. Naturforsch. 7a, 202 (1952).
  49. G. Elwert, Z. Naturforsch. 9a, 637 (1954).
  50. G. Elwert, Z. Astrophysik 41, 67 (1956).
  51. G. Elwert, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 391 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  52. E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 1, 209 (1963).
  53. S. L. Mandelstam, V. S. Prokudina, I. P. Tindo, E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 3, 739 (1965).
  54. L. A. Vainshtein, I. L. Beigman, Kosmich. Issled. (in press).
  55. L. A. Vainshtein, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 25, 209 (1964).
  56. I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainshtein, Astron. Zh. (1967) (in press).
  57. I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 41, 676 (1964).
  58. S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, V. I. Karev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 827 (1966).
  59. S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, G. S. Cheremukhin, L. S. Sorokin, A. B. Dmitriev, Kosmich. Issled. (in press)

1967 (1)

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, G. S. Cheremukhin, Kosrnich. Issled 5, 276 (1967).

1966 (2)

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, V. I. Karev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 827 (1966).

B. N. Vasilev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 748 (1966).

1965 (4)

S. L. Mandelstam, Space Sci. Rev. 4, 587 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. Chodil, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, F. D. Seward, C. D. Swift, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 605 (1965).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Mandelstam, V. S. Prokudina, I. P. Tindo, E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 3, 739 (1965).

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 142, 1 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (4)

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, Kosmich. Issled. 2, 290 (1964).

R. Tousey, Quart. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 5, 123 (1964).

L. A. Vainshtein, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 25, 209 (1964).

I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 41, 676 (1964).

1963 (3)

E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 1, 209 (1963).

A. M. Kasatkin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 15.

R. Tousey, Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (7)

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya 2, 425 (1962).

G. M. Nikolskii, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya 2, 3 (1962).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 39, 277 (1962).

S. L. Mandelstam, Yu. K. Voronko, I. P. Tindo, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 142, 177 (1962).

V. P. Kachalov, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 5 (1962).

V. P. Kachalov, M. Z. Khokhlov, V. L. Khokhlova, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 44 (1962).

V. P. Kachalov, Astron. Zh. 39, 977 (1962).

1961 (7)

T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, R. W. Kreplin, R. L. Blake, A. E. Unzicker, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 4, 228 (1961).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, O. P. Efimov, A. A. Lebedev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, M. A. Ivanov, V. N. Nikiforov, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 828 (1961).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 45 (1961).

G. Elwert, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 391 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

A. B. Severnyi, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 23, 311 (1960).

1959 (1)

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 8, 1177 (1959).

1958 (2)

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1105 (1958).

1957 (1)

S. L. Mandelstam, A. I. Efremov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 63, 163 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

G. Elwert, Z. Astrophysik 41, 67 (1956).

1954 (1)

G. Elwert, Z. Naturforsch. 9a, 637 (1954).

1952 (2)

G. Elwert, Z. Naturforsch. 7a, 202 (1952).

S. L. Mandelstam, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 46, 145 (1952).

1951 (1)

H. Friedman, S. Lichtmann, E. Bayram, Phys. Rev. 83, 1025 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1949 (2)

T. R. Burnight, Phys. Rev. 76, 1965 (1949).

I. S. Shklovskii, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 4, 80 (1949).

1948 (2)

R. Woolley, C. W. Allen, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 108, 292 (1948).

J. Hopfield, H. Clearman, Phys. Rev. 73, 877 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

S. E. Khaikin, B. M. Chikhachev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 58, 1923 (1947).

1946 (3)

V. L. Ginzburg, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 52, 491 (1946).

I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 33, 333 (1946).

W. B. Baum, F. Johnson, J. Oberly, C. Rockwood, C. Strain, R. Tousey, Phys. Rev. 70, 781 (1946).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 22, 249 (1945).

1942 (1)

B. Edlén, Z. Astrophys. 22, 30 (1942).

Allen, C. W.

R. Woolley, C. W. Allen, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 108, 292 (1948).

Arkhangelskaya, V. A.

T. V. Kazachevskaya, V. A. Arkhangelskaya, G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, V. S. Lebedev, T. K. Razumova, A. V. Chudaikin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 13.

Baum, W. B.

W. B. Baum, F. Johnson, J. Oberly, C. Rockwood, C. Strain, R. Tousey, Phys. Rev. 70, 781 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Bayram, E.

H. Friedman, S. Lichtmann, E. Bayram, Phys. Rev. 83, 1025 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Beigman, I. L.

L. A. Vainshtein, I. L. Beigman, Kosmich. Issled. (in press).

I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainshtein, Astron. Zh. (1967) (in press).

Blake, R. L.

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 142, 1 (1965).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, R. W. Kreplin, R. L. Blake, A. E. Unzicker, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 4, 228 (1961).

Bruns, A. V.

A. V. Bruns, V. K. Prokofev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 11.

Burnight, T. R.

T. R. Burnight, Phys. Rev. 76, 1965 (1949).

Cheremukhin, G. S.

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, G. S. Cheremukhin, Kosrnich. Issled 5, 276 (1967).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, G. S. Cheremukhin, L. S. Sorokin, A. B. Dmitriev, Kosmich. Issled. (in press)

Chikhachev, B. M.

S. E. Khaikin, B. M. Chikhachev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 58, 1923 (1947).

Chodil, G.

G. Chodil, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, F. D. Seward, C. D. Swift, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 605 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Chubb, T. A.

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 142, 1 (1965).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, R. W. Kreplin, R. L. Blake, A. E. Unzicker, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 4, 228 (1961).

Chudaikin, A. V.

T. V. Kazachevskaya, V. A. Arkhangelskaya, G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, V. S. Lebedev, T. K. Razumova, A. V. Chudaikin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 13.

Clearman, H.

J. Hopfield, H. Clearman, Phys. Rev. 73, 877 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, A. B.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, G. S. Cheremukhin, L. S. Sorokin, A. B. Dmitriev, Kosmich. Issled. (in press)

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, Z. Astrophys. 22, 30 (1942).

Efimov, O. P.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, O. P. Efimov, A. A. Lebedev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

Efremov, A. I.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, O. P. Efimov, A. A. Lebedev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, M. A. Ivanov, V. N. Nikiforov, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

S. L. Mandelstam, A. I. Efremov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 63, 163 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Elwert, G.

G. Elwert, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 391 (1961).
[CrossRef]

G. Elwert, Z. Astrophysik 41, 67 (1956).

G. Elwert, Z. Naturforsch. 9a, 637 (1954).

G. Elwert, Z. Naturforsch. 7a, 202 (1952).

Fetisov, E. N.

S. L. Mandelstam, V. S. Prokudina, I. P. Tindo, E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 3, 739 (1965).

E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 1, 209 (1963).

Friedman, H.

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 142, 1 (1965).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, R. W. Kreplin, R. L. Blake, A. E. Unzicker, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 4, 228 (1961).

H. Friedman, S. Lichtmann, E. Bayram, Phys. Rev. 83, 1025 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, V. L.

V. L. Ginzburg, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 52, 491 (1946).

Hopfield, J.

J. Hopfield, H. Clearman, Phys. Rev. 73, 877 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. A.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, M. A. Ivanov, V. N. Nikiforov, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

Ivanov-Kholodny, G. S.

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodny, G. M. Nicolskii, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 787.

Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. S.

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya 2, 425 (1962).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 39, 277 (1962).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 45 (1961).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 828 (1961).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1105 (1958).

T. V. Kazachevskaya, V. A. Arkhangelskaya, G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, V. S. Lebedev, T. K. Razumova, A. V. Chudaikin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 13.

Johnson, F.

W. B. Baum, F. Johnson, J. Oberly, C. Rockwood, C. Strain, R. Tousey, Phys. Rev. 70, 781 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R. C.

G. Chodil, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, F. D. Seward, C. D. Swift, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 605 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Kachalov, V. P.

V. P. Kachalov, Astron. Zh. 39, 977 (1962).

V. P. Kachalov, M. Z. Khokhlov, V. L. Khokhlova, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 44 (1962).

V. P. Kachalov, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 5 (1962).

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 8, 1177 (1959).

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958).

Karev, V. I.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, V. I. Karev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 827 (1966).

Kasatkin, A. M.

A. M. Kasatkin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 15.

Kazachevskaya, T. V.

T. V. Kazachevskaya, V. A. Arkhangelskaya, G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, V. S. Lebedev, T. K. Razumova, A. V. Chudaikin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 13.

Khaikin, S. E.

S. E. Khaikin, B. M. Chikhachev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 58, 1923 (1947).

Khokhlov, M. Z.

V. P. Kachalov, M. Z. Khokhlov, V. L. Khokhlova, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 44 (1962).

Khokhlova, V. L.

V. P. Kachalov, M. Z. Khokhlov, V. L. Khokhlova, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 44 (1962).

Kreplin, R. W.

T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, R. W. Kreplin, R. L. Blake, A. E. Unzicker, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 4, 228 (1961).

Krutov, V. V.

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, G. S. Cheremukhin, Kosrnich. Issled 5, 276 (1967).

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, Kosmich. Issled. 2, 290 (1964).

Lebedev, A. A.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, O. P. Efimov, A. A. Lebedev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

Lebedev, V. S.

T. V. Kazachevskaya, V. A. Arkhangelskaya, G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, V. S. Lebedev, T. K. Razumova, A. V. Chudaikin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 13.

Lichtmann, S.

H. Friedman, S. Lichtmann, E. Bayram, Phys. Rev. 83, 1025 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Malyavkin, L. P.

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, G. S. Cheremukhin, Kosrnich. Issled 5, 276 (1967).

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, Kosmich. Issled. 2, 290 (1964).

Mandelstam, S.

S. Mandelstam, B. Vasilyev, J. Voronko, I. Tindo, A. Shurygin, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 822.

Mandelstam, S. L.

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, G. S. Cheremukhin, Kosrnich. Issled 5, 276 (1967).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, V. I. Karev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 827 (1966).

S. L. Mandelstam, V. S. Prokudina, I. P. Tindo, E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 3, 739 (1965).

S. L. Mandelstam, Space Sci. Rev. 4, 587 (1965).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, Kosmich. Issled. 2, 290 (1964).

S. L. Mandelstam, Yu. K. Voronko, I. P. Tindo, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 142, 177 (1962).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

S. L. Mandelstam, A. I. Efremov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 63, 163 (1957).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Mandelstam, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 46, 145 (1952).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, B. N. Vasilev, A. I. Shurygin, in Artificial Earth Satellites(1961), No. 11.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, G. S. Cheremukhin, L. S. Sorokin, A. B. Dmitriev, Kosmich. Issled. (in press)

Mark, H.

G. Chodil, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, F. D. Seward, C. D. Swift, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 605 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Nicolskii, G. M.

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodny, G. M. Nicolskii, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 787.

Nikiforov, V. N.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, M. A. Ivanov, V. N. Nikiforov, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

Nikolskii, G. M.

G. M. Nikolskii, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya 2, 3 (1962).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya 2, 425 (1962).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 39, 277 (1962).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 45 (1961).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 828 (1961).

Oberly, J.

W. B. Baum, F. Johnson, J. Oberly, C. Rockwood, C. Strain, R. Tousey, Phys. Rev. 70, 781 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Papaleksi, N. D.

N. D. Papaleksi, in Reports of Expedition on the Observation of the Total Solar Eclipse of 19 June 1936 (Commission on Solar Studies, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1937), Vol. 1, p. 115.

Pavlenko, N. A.

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 8, 1177 (1959).

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958).

Podmoshenskii, L. A.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, M. A. Ivanov, V. N. Nikiforov, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, O. P. Efimov, A. A. Lebedev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

Prokofev, V. K.

A. V. Bruns, V. K. Prokofev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 11.

Prokudina, V. S.

S. L. Mandelstam, V. S. Prokudina, I. P. Tindo, E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 3, 739 (1965).

Razumova, T. K.

T. V. Kazachevskaya, V. A. Arkhangelskaya, G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, V. S. Lebedev, T. K. Razumova, A. V. Chudaikin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 13.

Rockwood, C.

W. B. Baum, F. Johnson, J. Oberly, C. Rockwood, C. Strain, R. Tousey, Phys. Rev. 70, 781 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Severnyi, A. B.

A. B. Severnyi, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 23, 311 (1960).

Seward, F. D.

G. Chodil, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, F. D. Seward, C. D. Swift, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 605 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Shklovskii, I. S.

I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 41, 676 (1964).

I. S. Shklovskii, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 4, 80 (1949).

I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 33, 333 (1946).

I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 22, 249 (1945).

Shurygin, A.

S. Mandelstam, B. Vasilyev, J. Voronko, I. Tindo, A. Shurygin, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 822.

Shurygin, A. I.

S. L. Mandelstam, Yu. K. Voronko, I. P. Tindo, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 142, 177 (1962).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, B. N. Vasilev, A. I. Shurygin, in Artificial Earth Satellites(1961), No. 11.

Sorokin, L. S.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, G. S. Cheremukhin, L. S. Sorokin, A. B. Dmitriev, Kosmich. Issled. (in press)

Strain, C.

W. B. Baum, F. Johnson, J. Oberly, C. Rockwood, C. Strain, R. Tousey, Phys. Rev. 70, 781 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Swift, C. D.

G. Chodil, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, F. D. Seward, C. D. Swift, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 605 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tindo, I.

S. Mandelstam, B. Vasilyev, J. Voronko, I. Tindo, A. Shurygin, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 822.

Tindo, I. P.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, V. I. Karev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 827 (1966).

S. L. Mandelstam, V. S. Prokudina, I. P. Tindo, E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 3, 739 (1965).

S. L. Mandelstam, Yu. K. Voronko, I. P. Tindo, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 142, 177 (1962).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

I. P. Tindo, in Studies of Outer Space (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1965), p. 533.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, B. N. Vasilev, A. I. Shurygin, in Artificial Earth Satellites(1961), No. 11.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, G. S. Cheremukhin, L. S. Sorokin, A. B. Dmitriev, Kosmich. Issled. (in press)

Tousey, R.

R. Tousey, Quart. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 5, 123 (1964).

R. Tousey, Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3 (1963).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Baum, F. Johnson, J. Oberly, C. Rockwood, C. Strain, R. Tousey, Phys. Rev. 70, 781 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Unzicker, A. E.

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 142, 1 (1965).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, R. W. Kreplin, R. L. Blake, A. E. Unzicker, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 4, 228 (1961).

Vainshtein, L. A.

L. A. Vainshtein, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 25, 209 (1964).

I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainshtein, Astron. Zh. (1967) (in press).

L. A. Vainshtein, I. L. Beigman, Kosmich. Issled. (in press).

Vasilev, B. N.

B. N. Vasilev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 748 (1966).

S. L. Mandelstam, Yu. K. Voronko, I. P. Tindo, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 142, 177 (1962).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, B. N. Vasilev, A. I. Shurygin, in Artificial Earth Satellites(1961), No. 11.

Vasilyev, B.

S. Mandelstam, B. Vasilyev, J. Voronko, I. Tindo, A. Shurygin, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 822.

Voronko, J.

S. Mandelstam, B. Vasilyev, J. Voronko, I. Tindo, A. Shurygin, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 822.

Voronko, Yu. K.

S. L. Mandelstam, Yu. K. Voronko, I. P. Tindo, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 142, 177 (1962).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, B. N. Vasilev, A. I. Shurygin, in Artificial Earth Satellites(1961), No. 11.

Woolley, R.

R. Woolley, C. W. Allen, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 108, 292 (1948).

Yakovleva, A. V.

V. P. Kachalov, M. Z. Khokhlov, V. L. Khokhlova, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 44 (1962).

V. P. Kachalov, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 5 (1962).

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 8, 1177 (1959).

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958).

A. V. Yakovleva et al., in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 14.

Zhitnik, I. A.

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, G. S. Cheremukhin, Kosrnich. Issled 5, 276 (1967).

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, Kosmich. Issled. 2, 290 (1964).

Artificial Earth Satellites (4)

A. M. Kasatkin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 15.

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, O. P. Efimov, A. A. Lebedev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

A. I. Efremov, L. A. Podmoshenskii, M. A. Ivanov, V. N. Nikiforov, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 10.

Astron. Zh. (7)

I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 41, 676 (1964).

V. P. Kachalov, Astron. Zh. 39, 977 (1962).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 45 (1961).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 39, 277 (1962).

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Astron. Zh. 38, 828 (1961).

I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 22, 249 (1945).

I. S. Shklovskii, Astron. Zh. 33, 333 (1946).

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 142, 1 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (3)

V. L. Ginzburg, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 52, 491 (1946).

S. L. Mandelstam, Yu. K. Voronko, I. P. Tindo, A. I. Shurygin, B. N. Vasilev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 142, 177 (1962).

S. E. Khaikin, B. M. Chikhachev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 58, 1923 (1947).

Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya (2)

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. M. Nikolskii, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya 2, 425 (1962).

G. M. Nikolskii, Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya 2, 3 (1962).

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geofiz. (1)

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1105 (1958).

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. (2)

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 9, 1099 (1958).

V. P. Kachalov, N. A. Pavlenko, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz. No. 8, 1177 (1959).

Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. (4)

V. P. Kachalov, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 5 (1962).

V. P. Kachalov, M. Z. Khokhlov, V. L. Khokhlova, A. V. Yakovleva, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 27, 44 (1962).

I. S. Shklovskii, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 4, 80 (1949).

A. B. Severnyi, Izv. Krymsk. Astrofiz. Observ. 23, 311 (1960).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

G. Elwert, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 391 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kosmich. Issled. (5)

E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 1, 209 (1963).

S. L. Mandelstam, V. S. Prokudina, I. P. Tindo, E. N. Fetisov, Kosmich. Issled. 3, 739 (1965).

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, Kosmich. Issled. 2, 290 (1964).

B. N. Vasilev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 748 (1966).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, V. I. Karev, Kosmich. Issled. 4, 827 (1966).

Kosrnich. Issled (1)

I. A. Zhitnik, V. V. Krutov, L. P. Malyavkin, S. L. Mandelstam, G. S. Cheremukhin, Kosrnich. Issled 5, 276 (1967).

Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege (1)

T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, R. W. Kreplin, R. L. Blake, A. E. Unzicker, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege 4, 228 (1961).

Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. (1)

R. Woolley, C. W. Allen, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 108, 292 (1948).

Phys. Rev. (4)

W. B. Baum, F. Johnson, J. Oberly, C. Rockwood, C. Strain, R. Tousey, Phys. Rev. 70, 781 (1946).
[CrossRef]

J. Hopfield, H. Clearman, Phys. Rev. 73, 877 (1948).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Burnight, Phys. Rev. 76, 1965 (1949).

H. Friedman, S. Lichtmann, E. Bayram, Phys. Rev. 83, 1025 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

G. Chodil, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, F. D. Seward, C. D. Swift, Phys. Rev. Letters 15, 605 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Quart. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. (1)

R. Tousey, Quart. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 5, 123 (1964).

Space Sci. Rev. (2)

S. L. Mandelstam, Space Sci. Rev. 4, 587 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Tousey, Space Sci. Rev. 2, 3 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

L. A. Vainshtein, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 25, 209 (1964).

Usp. Fiz. Nauk (2)

S. L. Mandelstam, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 46, 145 (1952).

S. L. Mandelstam, A. I. Efremov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 63, 163 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Z. Astrophys. (1)

B. Edlén, Z. Astrophys. 22, 30 (1942).

Z. Astrophysik (1)

G. Elwert, Z. Astrophysik 41, 67 (1956).

Z. Naturforsch. (2)

G. Elwert, Z. Naturforsch. 7a, 202 (1952).

G. Elwert, Z. Naturforsch. 9a, 637 (1954).

Other (11)

I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainshtein, Astron. Zh. (1967) (in press).

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, G. S. Cheremukhin, L. S. Sorokin, A. B. Dmitriev, Kosmich. Issled. (in press)

S. L. Mandelstam, I. P. Tindo, Yu. K. Voronko, B. N. Vasilev, A. I. Shurygin, in Artificial Earth Satellites(1961), No. 11.

I. P. Tindo, in Studies of Outer Space (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1965), p. 533.

L. A. Vainshtein, I. L. Beigman, Kosmich. Issled. (in press).

N. D. Papaleksi, in Reports of Expedition on the Observation of the Total Solar Eclipse of 19 June 1936 (Commission on Solar Studies, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1937), Vol. 1, p. 115.

A. V. Yakovleva et al., in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 14.

S. Mandelstam, B. Vasilyev, J. Voronko, I. Tindo, A. Shurygin, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 822.

T. V. Kazachevskaya, V. A. Arkhangelskaya, G. S. Ivanov-Kholodnyi, V. S. Lebedev, T. K. Razumova, A. V. Chudaikin, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1963), No. 13.

A. V. Bruns, V. K. Prokofev, in Artificial Earth Satellites (1961), No. 11.

G. S. Ivanov-Kholodny, G. M. Nicolskii, in Space Research III (North-Holland Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1963), p. 787.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ultraviolet spectrograph designed in 1955.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Portion of microphotogram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rocket spectrometer with photoelectric recording of the spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Portion of telemetry recording of signals for recording x-ray solar radiation (3 November 1957). (Instrument mounted in the second artificial earth satellite).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of measurements of the intensity of x-ray solar radiation in the 2–10-Å range during vertical ascent of geophysical rocket on 21 July 1959. (a) Measuring photon counter. (b) Control photon counter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Counter assembly with magnetic shielding.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results of measurements of the intensity of x-ray solar radiation in the 2–10-Å range made on 19–20 August 1960 in the second spaceship satellite (Moscow time).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Geographic distribution of zones of increased corpuscular radiation at 309–339 km altitude based on measurements made on the second spaceship satellite.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Results of measurements of the intensity of solar radiation in the 2–10-Å and 8–18-Å ranges made from 30 January to 16 March 1964 at the Electron–2 station: (a) 2–10-Å region; (b) 8–18-Å region; (c) electron temperature T (× 106)°; (d) relative number of spots; (e) area of flocculi; (f) radio-frequency radiation, λ = 10.7 cm; (g) radiofrequency radiation of discrete sources, λ = 6.6 cm; (h) x radiation in the 2–10-Å range calculated theoretically; and (i) x radiation in the 8–18-Å range calculated theoretically.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photographs of solar disk obtained on 1 October 1965 from a geophysical rocket. Photographs of the sun in the calcium and hydrogen lines are given on the bottom.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Top. Next to a CaK chart is a photograph of the sun in the 170–400-Å spectral range, 6 June 1963. Bottom. A spectroheliogram in the He ii 303-Å line.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Photograph of the sun during x-ray flare at 04 h 05 min UT, 1 October 1965.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Schematic diagram of solar spectrum in the 2–25-Å range at a temperature of 2 × 106 and 4 × 106°K.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Schematic representation of the quasi-constant and slowly varying components of the x-ray solar radiation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Spectral Lines Observed in the X-ray Region of the Solar Spectrum

Metrics