Abstract

The characteristics of luminescence, excited by long wavelength radiation, in various solid systems (ionic crystals, activated by rare earth elements; semiconducting crystals with absorbed layers of sensitizer dye; green leaves of plants) have been investigated. It was found that in all cases studied the emission arises as a result of cooperative processes, owing to interactions of two or more excited states. The role of cooperative excitation in the phenomenon of sensitization of various photochemical and photophysical processes is pointed out.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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  1. See, e.g., C. E. K. Mees, Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Co., Inc., New York, 1954); Yu. N. Gorokhovsky, Spectral Investigation of Photographic Process (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1960); E. Klein, R. Matejec, Agfa Mitteilungen 4, 16 (1965).
  2. See, e.g., A. N. Terenin, Photochemistry of Dyes (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow, 1947); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 43, 347 (1951); E. Rabinowitch, Photosynthesis and Related Processes (Interscience, New York); Vols. 1 and 2, 1946; Photosynthesis and Related Processes Vol.3, 1956.
  3. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 43, 757 (1922); P. Pringsheim, Z. Phys. 10, 176 (1922); Z. Phys. 16, 71 (1923); V. E. Kholmogorov, in Elementary Photoprocesses in Molecules (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966), p. 163; V. V. Rylkov, V. E. Kholmogorov, A. N. Terenin, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 22, 240 (1967); Opt. Spectry. 22, 129 (1967)
    [CrossRef]
  4. See, e.g., S. I. Vavilov, Microstructure of Light (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow, 1950); Collected Papers (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow, 1952) Vol. 2; T. Förster, Fluoreszenz organischer Verbindungen, (Vanderhoech und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1951); A. N. Terenin, V. L. Ermolaev, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 58, 37 (1956); M. D. Galanin, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 12, 3 (1960); V. L. Ermolaev, in Elementary Photoprocesses in Molecules (Nauka Press, Leningrad, 1966), p. 147.
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. A. Parker, C. G. Hatchard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 269A, 574 (1962); C. A. Parker, Adv. Photochemistry 2, 305 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. G. Kepler, J. C. Caris, P. Avakian, E. Abramson, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 400 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Silver, D. Olness, M. Swicord, R. C. Jarnagin, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 12 (1963); R. G. Kepler, R. E. Merrifield, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1173 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Pope, H. Kallmann, J. Giachino, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2540 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. A. Tolstoi, A. P. Abramov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 496 (1966); Opt. i Spektroskopiya 21, 171 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 273 (1966) Opt. Spectry. 21, 100 (1966). Fiz. Tverd. Tela 9, 340 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Solid State 9, 255 (1967).
  10. N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Letters 2, 34 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. Brown, W. A. Shand, Phys. Rev. Letters 12, 367 (1964); Phys. Letters 8, 19 (1964); Phys. Letters 11, 219 (1964); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 251 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. L. Bakumenko, A. N. Vlasov, E. S. Kovarskaya, G. S. Kozina, V. N. Favorin, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktsiyu 2, 27 (1965); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 2, 16 (1965).
  13. L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 281 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. R. Brown, W. A. Shand, J. S. S. Whiting, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 619 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktisyu 3, 494 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETPLetters 3, 322 (1966).
  16. V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Nonlinear Optics, Novosibirsk (1966).
  17. V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 526 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 296 (1966).
  18. V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma Redaktsiyu 4, 471 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 4, 317 (1966).
  19. D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 108, 630 (1957); Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Auzel, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262B, 1016 (1966); C. R. Acad. Sci. 263B, 819 (1966).
  21. L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, J. Bahler, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 128 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 174787 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Dokl. (in press).
  23. J. T. Randall, Nature 142, 113 (1938); Proc. Roy. Soc. London 170, 272 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. A. Arkhangelskaya, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 91, 1055 (1953); Dokl. Akad. Nauk 108, 803 (1956). Soviet Phys.–Dokl. 1, 358 (1957).J. Phys. Radium 17, 824 (1956). Opt. i Spektroskopiya 2, 107 (1957).
  25. S. I. Golub, Thesis, Odessa (1965).
  26. See, e.g., I. A. Akimov, in Elementary Processes in Molecules (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966), p. 397.

1967 (2)

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, J. Bahler, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 174787 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Dokl. (in press).

1966 (5)

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktisyu 3, 494 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETPLetters 3, 322 (1966).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 526 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 296 (1966).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma Redaktsiyu 4, 471 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 4, 317 (1966).

N. A. Tolstoi, A. P. Abramov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 496 (1966); Opt. i Spektroskopiya 21, 171 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 273 (1966) Opt. Spectry. 21, 100 (1966). Fiz. Tverd. Tela 9, 340 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Solid State 9, 255 (1967).

F. Auzel, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262B, 1016 (1966); C. R. Acad. Sci. 263B, 819 (1966).

1965 (4)

M. Pope, H. Kallmann, J. Giachino, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2540 (1965).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Bakumenko, A. N. Vlasov, E. S. Kovarskaya, G. S. Kozina, V. N. Favorin, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktsiyu 2, 27 (1965); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 2, 16 (1965).

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 281 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Brown, W. A. Shand, J. S. S. Whiting, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 619 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

M. P. Brown, W. A. Shand, Phys. Rev. Letters 12, 367 (1964); Phys. Letters 8, 19 (1964); Phys. Letters 11, 219 (1964); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 251 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

R. G. Kepler, J. C. Caris, P. Avakian, E. Abramson, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 400 (1963).
[CrossRef]

M. Silver, D. Olness, M. Swicord, R. C. Jarnagin, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 12 (1963); R. G. Kepler, R. E. Merrifield, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1173 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

C. A. Parker, C. G. Hatchard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 269A, 574 (1962); C. A. Parker, Adv. Photochemistry 2, 305 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Letters 2, 34 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 108, 630 (1957); Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

V. A. Arkhangelskaya, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 91, 1055 (1953); Dokl. Akad. Nauk 108, 803 (1956). Soviet Phys.–Dokl. 1, 358 (1957).J. Phys. Radium 17, 824 (1956). Opt. i Spektroskopiya 2, 107 (1957).

1938 (1)

J. T. Randall, Nature 142, 113 (1938); Proc. Roy. Soc. London 170, 272 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1922 (1)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 43, 757 (1922); P. Pringsheim, Z. Phys. 10, 176 (1922); Z. Phys. 16, 71 (1923); V. E. Kholmogorov, in Elementary Photoprocesses in Molecules (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966), p. 163; V. V. Rylkov, V. E. Kholmogorov, A. N. Terenin, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 22, 240 (1967); Opt. Spectry. 22, 129 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A. P.

N. A. Tolstoi, A. P. Abramov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 496 (1966); Opt. i Spektroskopiya 21, 171 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 273 (1966) Opt. Spectry. 21, 100 (1966). Fiz. Tverd. Tela 9, 340 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Solid State 9, 255 (1967).

Abramson, E.

R. G. Kepler, J. C. Caris, P. Avakian, E. Abramson, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 400 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, I. A.

See, e.g., I. A. Akimov, in Elementary Processes in Molecules (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966), p. 397.

Arkhangelskaya, V. A.

V. A. Arkhangelskaya, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 91, 1055 (1953); Dokl. Akad. Nauk 108, 803 (1956). Soviet Phys.–Dokl. 1, 358 (1957).J. Phys. Radium 17, 824 (1956). Opt. i Spektroskopiya 2, 107 (1957).

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262B, 1016 (1966); C. R. Acad. Sci. 263B, 819 (1966).

Avakian, P.

R. G. Kepler, J. C. Caris, P. Avakian, E. Abramson, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 400 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bahler, J.

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, J. Bahler, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bakumenko, V. L.

V. L. Bakumenko, A. N. Vlasov, E. S. Kovarskaya, G. S. Kozina, V. N. Favorin, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktsiyu 2, 27 (1965); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 2, 16 (1965).

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Letters 2, 34 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. P.

M. P. Brown, W. A. Shand, Phys. Rev. Letters 12, 367 (1964); Phys. Letters 8, 19 (1964); Phys. Letters 11, 219 (1964); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 251 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. R.

M. R. Brown, W. A. Shand, J. S. S. Whiting, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 619 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Caris, J. C.

R. G. Kepler, J. C. Caris, P. Avakian, E. Abramson, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 400 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 108, 630 (1957); Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, J. Bahler, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 281 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Favorin, V. N.

V. L. Bakumenko, A. N. Vlasov, E. S. Kovarskaya, G. S. Kozina, V. N. Favorin, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktsiyu 2, 27 (1965); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 2, 16 (1965).

Feofilov, P. P.

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 174787 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Dokl. (in press).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktisyu 3, 494 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETPLetters 3, 322 (1966).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 526 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 296 (1966).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma Redaktsiyu 4, 471 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 4, 317 (1966).

V. A. Arkhangelskaya, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 91, 1055 (1953); Dokl. Akad. Nauk 108, 803 (1956). Soviet Phys.–Dokl. 1, 358 (1957).J. Phys. Radium 17, 824 (1956). Opt. i Spektroskopiya 2, 107 (1957).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Nonlinear Optics, Novosibirsk (1966).

Giachino, J.

M. Pope, H. Kallmann, J. Giachino, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2540 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Golub, S. I.

S. I. Golub, Thesis, Odessa (1965).

Hatchard, C. G.

C. A. Parker, C. G. Hatchard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 269A, 574 (1962); C. A. Parker, Adv. Photochemistry 2, 305 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Jarnagin, R. C.

M. Silver, D. Olness, M. Swicord, R. C. Jarnagin, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 12 (1963); R. G. Kepler, R. E. Merrifield, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1173 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kallmann, H.

M. Pope, H. Kallmann, J. Giachino, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2540 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Kepler, R. G.

R. G. Kepler, J. C. Caris, P. Avakian, E. Abramson, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 400 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kovarskaya, E. S.

V. L. Bakumenko, A. N. Vlasov, E. S. Kovarskaya, G. S. Kozina, V. N. Favorin, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktsiyu 2, 27 (1965); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 2, 16 (1965).

Kozina, G. S.

V. L. Bakumenko, A. N. Vlasov, E. S. Kovarskaya, G. S. Kozina, V. N. Favorin, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktsiyu 2, 27 (1965); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 2, 16 (1965).

Mees, C. E. K.

See, e.g., C. E. K. Mees, Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Co., Inc., New York, 1954); Yu. N. Gorokhovsky, Spectral Investigation of Photographic Process (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1960); E. Klein, R. Matejec, Agfa Mitteilungen 4, 16 (1965).

Noonan, J.

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, J. Bahler, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 281 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Olness, D.

M. Silver, D. Olness, M. Swicord, R. C. Jarnagin, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 12 (1963); R. G. Kepler, R. E. Merrifield, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1173 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ovsyankin, V. V.

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 174787 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Dokl. (in press).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktisyu 3, 494 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETPLetters 3, 322 (1966).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 526 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 296 (1966).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma Redaktsiyu 4, 471 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 4, 317 (1966).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Nonlinear Optics, Novosibirsk (1966).

Parker, C. A.

C. A. Parker, C. G. Hatchard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 269A, 574 (1962); C. A. Parker, Adv. Photochemistry 2, 305 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Pope, M.

M. Pope, H. Kallmann, J. Giachino, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2540 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Randall, J. T.

J. T. Randall, Nature 142, 113 (1938); Proc. Roy. Soc. London 170, 272 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Shand, W. A.

M. R. Brown, W. A. Shand, J. S. S. Whiting, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 619 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Brown, W. A. Shand, Phys. Rev. Letters 12, 367 (1964); Phys. Letters 8, 19 (1964); Phys. Letters 11, 219 (1964); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 251 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Silver, M.

M. Silver, D. Olness, M. Swicord, R. C. Jarnagin, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 12 (1963); R. G. Kepler, R. E. Merrifield, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1173 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Swicord, M.

M. Silver, D. Olness, M. Swicord, R. C. Jarnagin, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 12 (1963); R. G. Kepler, R. E. Merrifield, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1173 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Terenin, A. N.

See, e.g., A. N. Terenin, Photochemistry of Dyes (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow, 1947); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 43, 347 (1951); E. Rabinowitch, Photosynthesis and Related Processes (Interscience, New York); Vols. 1 and 2, 1946; Photosynthesis and Related Processes Vol.3, 1956.

Tolstoi, N. A.

N. A. Tolstoi, A. P. Abramov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 496 (1966); Opt. i Spektroskopiya 21, 171 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 273 (1966) Opt. Spectry. 21, 100 (1966). Fiz. Tverd. Tela 9, 340 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Solid State 9, 255 (1967).

Vavilov, S. I.

See, e.g., S. I. Vavilov, Microstructure of Light (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow, 1950); Collected Papers (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow, 1952) Vol. 2; T. Förster, Fluoreszenz organischer Verbindungen, (Vanderhoech und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1951); A. N. Terenin, V. L. Ermolaev, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 58, 37 (1956); M. D. Galanin, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 12, 3 (1960); V. L. Ermolaev, in Elementary Photoprocesses in Molecules (Nauka Press, Leningrad, 1966), p. 147.
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, A. N.

V. L. Bakumenko, A. N. Vlasov, E. S. Kovarskaya, G. S. Kozina, V. N. Favorin, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktsiyu 2, 27 (1965); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 2, 16 (1965).

Whiting, J. S. S.

M. R. Brown, W. A. Shand, J. S. S. Whiting, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 619 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 43, 757 (1922); P. Pringsheim, Z. Phys. 10, 176 (1922); Z. Phys. 16, 71 (1923); V. E. Kholmogorov, in Elementary Photoprocesses in Molecules (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966), p. 163; V. V. Rylkov, V. E. Kholmogorov, A. N. Terenin, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 22, 240 (1967); Opt. Spectry. 22, 129 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Letters (2)

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 281 (1965).
[CrossRef]

L. Esterowitz, J. Noonan, J. Bahler, Appl. Phys. Letters 10, 128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. R. Brown, W. A. Shand, J. S. S. Whiting, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 619 (1965).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

F. Auzel, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262B, 1016 (1966); C. R. Acad. Sci. 263B, 819 (1966).

Dokl. Akad. Nauk (2)

V. A. Arkhangelskaya, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 91, 1055 (1953); Dokl. Akad. Nauk 108, 803 (1956). Soviet Phys.–Dokl. 1, 358 (1957).J. Phys. Radium 17, 824 (1956). Opt. i Spektroskopiya 2, 107 (1957).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 174787 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Dokl. (in press).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Pope, H. Kallmann, J. Giachino, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2540 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. T. Randall, Nature 142, 113 (1938); Proc. Roy. Soc. London 170, 272 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Opt. i Spektroskopiya (2)

N. A. Tolstoi, A. P. Abramov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 496 (1966); Opt. i Spektroskopiya 21, 171 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 273 (1966) Opt. Spectry. 21, 100 (1966). Fiz. Tverd. Tela 9, 340 (1967); Soviet Phys.–Solid State 9, 255 (1967).

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 20, 526 (1966); Opt. Spectry. 20, 296 (1966).

Phil. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 43, 757 (1922); P. Pringsheim, Z. Phys. 10, 176 (1922); Z. Phys. 16, 71 (1923); V. E. Kholmogorov, in Elementary Photoprocesses in Molecules (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966), p. 163; V. V. Rylkov, V. E. Kholmogorov, A. N. Terenin, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 22, 240 (1967); Opt. Spectry. 22, 129 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 108, 630 (1957); Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Letters (4)

N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Letters 2, 34 (1959).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Brown, W. A. Shand, Phys. Rev. Letters 12, 367 (1964); Phys. Letters 8, 19 (1964); Phys. Letters 11, 219 (1964); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 251 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kepler, J. C. Caris, P. Avakian, E. Abramson, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 400 (1963).
[CrossRef]

M. Silver, D. Olness, M. Swicord, R. C. Jarnagin, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 12 (1963); R. G. Kepler, R. E. Merrifield, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1173 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. London (1)

C. A. Parker, C. G. Hatchard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 269A, 574 (1962); C. A. Parker, Adv. Photochemistry 2, 305 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma Redaktsiyu (1)

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma Redaktsiyu 4, 471 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 4, 317 (1966).

Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktisyu (1)

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktisyu 3, 494 (1966); Soviet Phys.–JETPLetters 3, 322 (1966).

Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktsiyu (1)

V. L. Bakumenko, A. N. Vlasov, E. S. Kovarskaya, G. S. Kozina, V. N. Favorin, Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. Pisma v Redaktsiyu 2, 27 (1965); Soviet Phys.–JETP Letters 2, 16 (1965).

Other (6)

See, e.g., S. I. Vavilov, Microstructure of Light (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow, 1950); Collected Papers (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow, 1952) Vol. 2; T. Förster, Fluoreszenz organischer Verbindungen, (Vanderhoech und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1951); A. N. Terenin, V. L. Ermolaev, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 58, 37 (1956); M. D. Galanin, Tr. Fiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 12, 3 (1960); V. L. Ermolaev, in Elementary Photoprocesses in Molecules (Nauka Press, Leningrad, 1966), p. 147.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., C. E. K. Mees, Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Co., Inc., New York, 1954); Yu. N. Gorokhovsky, Spectral Investigation of Photographic Process (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1960); E. Klein, R. Matejec, Agfa Mitteilungen 4, 16 (1965).

See, e.g., A. N. Terenin, Photochemistry of Dyes (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Press, Moscow, 1947); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 43, 347 (1951); E. Rabinowitch, Photosynthesis and Related Processes (Interscience, New York); Vols. 1 and 2, 1946; Photosynthesis and Related Processes Vol.3, 1956.

V. V. Ovsyankin, P. P. Feofilov, Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Nonlinear Optics, Novosibirsk (1966).

S. I. Golub, Thesis, Odessa (1965).

See, e.g., I. A. Akimov, in Elementary Processes in Molecules (Nauka Press, Moscow, 1966), p. 397.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme for summing energy by means of sequential absorption of quanta: (a) Bloembergen’s scheme for quantum counting; (b) sequential absorption in the case ν12ν23.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Term diagram of Er3+ ion (a) and accumulation of excitation energy accompanying green (b) and red (c) emission in two-quantum processes, and green emission (d) for a three-quantum process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity of green emission of BaF2–Er3+, excited by radiation in the interval 0.9 ≤ λ ≤ 1.2 μ, as a function of Er concentration. T = 300°K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Term diagram of Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions and cooperative sensitization by Yb3+ ions of Tm3+ emission.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scheme for accumulating excitation energy of donors D (dye sensitizer) in the conduction band of Ag Hal: (a) direct transfer of excitation to the zone; (b) transfer of energy to intermediate Ag Hal levels with subsequent accumulation.

Equations (6)

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- A * - A - A - - A - A * - A - ;
- A * - A - B - - A - A * - B - - A - A - B * - ,
- A * - A - Q - - A - A * - Q - - A - A - Q ( + E ) - .
A * + A * A * * + A .
D + A + A + h ν D D * + A + A D + A * + A * D + A + A + 2 h ν A .
D + D + A + 2 h ν D D * + D * + A D + D + A * D + D + A + h ν A .

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