Abstract

The history and philosophy of optical instrumentation for auroral and airglow studies, as developed at the University of Saskatchewan, is reviewed. Some details are given of the applications of grating spectroscopic systems, Fabry-Perot monochromators, Michelson interferometers, and birefringent and filter photometers with both photographic, photomultiplier, and photoconductive detectors. Finally, examples are given of the applications of these techniques to upper atmosphere temperature determinations, auroral excitation theory, auroral hydrogen arc studies, atmospheric alkali metals, and dayglow molecular oxygen emissions.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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D. M. Hunten, W. L. Godson, J. Atmospheric Sci. 24, 80 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, Space Sci. Rev. 6, 493 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Llewellyn, W. F. J. Evans, A. Vallance Jones, D. M. Hunten, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 48, 71 (1967).

D. M. Hunten, L. Wallace, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 697 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, E. J. Llewellyn, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 215, 352 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Fastie, Appl. Opt. 6, 397 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Shepherd, L. Paffrath, Appl. Opt. 6, 1659 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (9)

R. L. Hilliard, G. G. Shepherd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Hilliard, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 14, 383 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, J. C. G. Walker, Planetary Space Sci. 15, 1331 (1966).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Paulson, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 44, 837 (1966).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Tinsley, Appl. Opt. 5, 1139 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Broadfoot, Appl. Opt. 5, 1259 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Gault, H. N. Rundle, Can. J. Phys. 44, 1099 (1966).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Deehr, G. J. Romick, A. E. Belon, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Broadfoot, D. M. Hunten, Planetary Space Sci. 15, 1303 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (6)

A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 1163 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Katzenstein, Appl. Opt. 4, 263 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, L. L. Cogger, Appl. Opt. 4, 267 (1965).
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J. G. Hirschberg, P. Platz, Appl. Opt. 4, 1375 (1965).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 43, 697 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (10)

J. M. Malville, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 1831 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Connes, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 9 (5e), 81 (1964).

H. P. Gush, H. L. Buijs, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1037 (1964).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Sullivan, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 42, 937 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Broadfoot, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 52, 1212 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. Vallance Jones, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 9 (5e), 289 (1964).

D. M. Hunten, A. Vallance Jones, C. D. Ellyett, E. C. McLauchlan, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 26, 67 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Neo, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1325 (1964).

A. H. Jarret, M. J. Hoey, L. Paffrath, Planetary Sci. 12, 591 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Jarrett, M. J. Hoey, Planetary Space Sci. 12, 1139 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (9)

H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 25, 604 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. Vallance Jones, R. L. Gattinger, Planetary Space Sci. 11, 961 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 41, 343 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. Vallance Jones, Planetary Space Sci. 10, 117 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 41, 343 (1963).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, A. R. Bens, Nature 198, 470 (1963).
[CrossRef]

I. Maartense, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1729 (1963).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Fastie, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 3, 505 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, E. G. Rawson, J. K. Walker, Can. J. Phys. 41, 258 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (6)

L. E. Montbriand, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 1401 (1962).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Turgeon, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 9, 295 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 24, 333 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 196, 157 (1962).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Montbriand, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 1401 (1962).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Johanson, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 24 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (4)

M. H. Rees, A. E. Belon, G. J. Romick, Planetary Space Sci. 5, 87 (1961).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Shemansky, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 22, 166 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Nilson, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 5, 229 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. R Bullock, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 39, 976 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (9)

D. M. Hunten, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. 54, 177 (1960).

P. Jacquinot, Rept. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 38, 1560 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 38, 346 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. H. McPherson, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 302 (1960).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Rundle, D. M. Hunten, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 205 (1960).
[CrossRef]

A. Vallance Jones, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 38, 458 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 295 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Connes, H. P. Gush, J. Phys. Radium 21, 645 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (2)

D. M. Hunten, H. J. Koenig, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 183, 453 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Lytle, D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 16, 236 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (4)

A. V. Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 13, 45 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Delannoy, G. Weill, Compt. Rend. 247, 806 (1958).

A. Vallance Jones, D. H. McPherson, J. Atmospheric Terrest Phys. 12, 166 (1958).
[CrossRef]

A. Vallance Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 13, 45 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (2)

J. A. Scrimger, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 35, 918 (1957).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Montalbetti, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 11, 43 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (4)

D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

P. Connes, Rev. Opt. 35, 37 (1956).

R. B. Dunn, E. R. Manring, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 572 (1956).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 578 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1955 (4)

D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 7, 141 (1955).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Gush, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 7, 285 (1955).
[CrossRef]

A. Vallance Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 6, 336 (1955).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 6, 328 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (2)

D. M. Hunten, G. G. Shepherd, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 5, 57 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Meek, Astrophys. J. 120, 602 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 31, 681 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

W. G. Fastie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 641, 647 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1951 (4)

C. E. Dahlstrom, D. M. Hunten, Phys. Rev. 84, 378 (1951).
[CrossRef]

W. Petrie, R. Small, Astrophys. J. 116, 433 (1951).
[CrossRef]

L. Vegard, E. Tønsberg, C. Kvifte, Geofys. Publikasjoner 18, 1 (1951).

J. E. Blamont, A. Kastler, Ann. Geophys. 7, 73 (1951).

1950 (2)

G. Suryan, Phys. Rev. 80, 119 (1950).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Meinel, Astrophys. J. 111, 555 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1949 (2)

F. Bloch, D. H. Garber, Phys. Rev. 76, 585 (1949).

J. W. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 229 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

B. Lyot, Ann. Astrophys. 7, 31 (1944).

1939 (2)

W. D. Penn, B. W. Currie, Can. J. Phys. Res. A27, 45 (1939).

L. Vegard, Nature 114, 1089 (1939).

1938 (1)

R. Bernard, Z. Phys. 110, 291 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

B. W. Currie, H. W. Edwards, J. Terrest. Magnetism Atmospheric Elec. 41, 265 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

B. W. Currie, H. W. Edwards, J. Terrest. Magnetism Atmospheric Elec. 39, 293 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, M.

M. Ahmed, Ph.D. Thesis, 1966, University of Saskatchewan.

Belon, A. E.

C. S. Deehr, G. J. Romick, A. E. Belon, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Rees, A. E. Belon, G. J. Romick, Planetary Space Sci. 5, 87 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Bens, A. R.

A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, A. R. Bens, Nature 198, 470 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, R.

R. Bernard, Z. Phys. 110, 291 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Blamont, J. E.

J. E. Blamont, A. Kastler, Ann. Geophys. 7, 73 (1951).

Bloch, F.

F. Bloch, D. H. Garber, Phys. Rev. 76, 585 (1949).

Broadfoot, A. L.

A. L. Broadfoot, D. M. Hunten, Planetary Space Sci. 15, 1303 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Broadfoot, Appl. Opt. 5, 1259 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Broadfoot, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 52, 1212 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Buijs, H. L.

H. P. Gush, H. L. Buijs, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1037 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Bullock, W. R

W. R Bullock, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 39, 976 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. W.

H. N. Rundle, D. M. Hunten, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 205 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961).

Cogger, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, L. L. Cogger, Appl. Opt. 4, 267 (1965).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 1163 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Connes, J.

J. Connes, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 9 (5e), 81 (1964).

J. Connes, H. P. Gush, J. Phys. Radium 21, 645 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Connes, P.

P. Connes, Rev. Opt. 35, 37 (1956).

Culp, G.

G. Culp, A. T. Stair, private communication.

Currie, B. W.

W. D. Penn, B. W. Currie, Can. J. Phys. Res. A27, 45 (1939).

B. W. Currie, H. W. Edwards, J. Terrest. Magnetism Atmospheric Elec. 41, 265 (1936).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Currie, H. W. Edwards, J. Terrest. Magnetism Atmospheric Elec. 39, 293 (1934).
[CrossRef]

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C. E. Dahlstrom, D. M. Hunten, Phys. Rev. 84, 378 (1951).
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C. S. Deehr, G. J. Romick, A. E. Belon, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 362 (1966).
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Delannoy, J.

J. Delannoy, G. Weill, Compt. Rend. 247, 806 (1958).

Dunn, R. B.

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B. W. Currie, H. W. Edwards, J. Terrest. Magnetism Atmospheric Elec. 41, 265 (1936).
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B. W. Currie, H. W. Edwards, J. Terrest. Magnetism Atmospheric Elec. 39, 293 (1934).
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Ellyett, C. D.

D. M. Hunten, A. Vallance Jones, C. D. Ellyett, E. C. McLauchlan, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 26, 67 (1964).
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Evans, J. W.

Evans, W. F. J.

E. J. Llewellyn, W. F. J. Evans, A. Vallance Jones, D. M. Hunten, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 48, 71 (1967).

W. F. J. Evans, E. J. Llewellyn, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 215, 352 (1967).
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W. F. J. Evans, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 43, 697 (1965).
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W. G. Fastie, Appl. Opt. 6, 397 (1967).
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E. J. Fjarlie, Ph.D. Thesis, 1965, University of Saskatchewan.

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F. Bloch, D. H. Garber, Phys. Rev. 76, 585 (1949).

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A. Vallance Jones, R. L. Gattinger, Planetary Space Sci. 11, 961 (1963).
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W. A. Gault, H. N. Rundle, Can. J. Phys. 44, 1099 (1966).
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D. M. Hunten, W. L. Godson, J. Atmospheric Sci. 24, 80 (1967).
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H. P. Gush, H. L. Buijs, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1037 (1964).
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J. Connes, H. P. Gush, J. Phys. Radium 21, 645 (1960).
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H. P. Gush, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 7, 285 (1955).
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A. V. Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 13, 45 (1958).
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A. Vallance Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 13, 45 (1958).
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A. Vallance Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 6, 336 (1955).
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P. B. Hays, J. C. G. Walker, Planetary Space Sci. 15, 1331 (1966).
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R. L. Hilliard, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 14, 383 (1966).
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Hoey, M. J.

A. H. Jarret, M. J. Hoey, L. Paffrath, Planetary Sci. 12, 591 (1964).
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A. H. Jarrett, M. J. Hoey, Planetary Space Sci. 12, 1139 (1964).
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D. M. Hunten, W. L. Godson, J. Atmospheric Sci. 24, 80 (1967).
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D. M. Hunten, Space Sci. Rev. 6, 493 (1967).
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D. M. Hunten, L. Wallace, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 697 (1967).
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A. L. Broadfoot, D. M. Hunten, Planetary Space Sci. 15, 1303 (1966).
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A. L. Broadfoot, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 52, 1212 (1964).
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H. M. Sullivan, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 42, 937 (1964).
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I. Maartense, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1729 (1963).
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D. M. Hunten, E. G. Rawson, J. K. Walker, Can. J. Phys. 41, 258 (1963).
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D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 24, 333 (1962).
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W. R Bullock, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 39, 976 (1961).
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A. Vallance Jones, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 38, 458 (1960).
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D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 295 (1960).
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H. N. Rundle, D. M. Hunten, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 205 (1960).
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D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 38, 346 (1960).
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D. M. Hunten, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. 54, 177 (1960).

E. A. Lytle, D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 16, 236 (1959).
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D. M. Hunten, H. J. Koenig, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 183, 453 (1959).
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J. A. Scrimger, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 35, 918 (1957).
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D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
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D. M. Hunten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 578 (1956).
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D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 7, 141 (1955).
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G. G. Shepherd, D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 6, 328 (1955).
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D. M. Hunten, G. G. Shepherd, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 5, 57 (1954).
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D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 31, 681 (1953).
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C. E. Dahlstrom, D. M. Hunten, Phys. Rev. 84, 378 (1951).
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D. M. Hunten, Introduction to Electronics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, 1964), Chap. 16.

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P. Jacquinot, Rept. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
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A. H. Jarret, M. J. Hoey, L. Paffrath, Planetary Sci. 12, 591 (1964).
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A. H. Jarrett, M. J. Hoey, Planetary Space Sci. 12, 1139 (1964).
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A. E. Johanson, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 24 (1962).
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A. V. Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 13, 45 (1958).
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J. E. Blamont, A. Kastler, Ann. Geophys. 7, 73 (1951).

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D. M. Hunten, H. J. Koenig, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 183, 453 (1959).
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L. Vegard, E. Tønsberg, C. Kvifte, Geofys. Publikasjoner 18, 1 (1951).

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E. J. Llewellyn, W. F. J. Evans, A. Vallance Jones, D. M. Hunten, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 48, 71 (1967).

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B. Lyot, Ann. Astrophys. 7, 31 (1944).

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E. A. Lytle, D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 16, 236 (1959).
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I. Maartense, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1729 (1963).
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J. M. Malville, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 1831 (1964).
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Manring, E. R.

McLauchlan, E. C.

D. M. Hunten, A. Vallance Jones, C. D. Ellyett, E. C. McLauchlan, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 26, 67 (1964).
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D. H. McPherson, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 302 (1960).
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A. Vallance Jones, D. H. McPherson, J. Atmospheric Terrest Phys. 12, 166 (1958).
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J. H. Meek, Astrophys. J. 120, 602 (1954).
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A. B. Meinel, Astrophys. J. 111, 555 (1950).
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L. Mertz, preprints of papers presented at the Fifth Meeting and Conference of the ICO, Stockholm, Aug.1959. Ed. E. Inglestam.

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I. R. Montalbetti, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 11, 43 (1957).
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L. E. Montbriand, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 1401 (1962).
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L. E. Montbriand, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 1401 (1962).
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Y. P. Neo, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1325 (1964).

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J. A. Nilson, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 5, 229 (1961).
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J. F. Noxon, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 196, 157 (1962).
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G. G. Shepherd, L. Paffrath, Appl. Opt. 6, 1659 (1967).
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A. H. Jarret, M. J. Hoey, L. Paffrath, Planetary Sci. 12, 591 (1964).
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K. V. Paulson, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 44, 837 (1966).
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W. D. Penn, B. W. Currie, Can. J. Phys. Res. A27, 45 (1939).

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W. Petrie, R. Small, Astrophys. J. 116, 433 (1951).
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Platz, P.

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D. M. Hunten, E. G. Rawson, J. K. Walker, Can. J. Phys. 41, 258 (1963).
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M. H. Rees, A. E. Belon, G. J. Romick, Planetary Space Sci. 5, 87 (1961).
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Roach, F. E.

D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
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C. S. Deehr, G. J. Romick, A. E. Belon, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 362 (1966).
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M. H. Rees, A. E. Belon, G. J. Romick, Planetary Space Sci. 5, 87 (1961).
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W. A. Gault, H. N. Rundle, Can. J. Phys. 44, 1099 (1966).
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H. N. Rundle, D. M. Hunten, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 205 (1960).
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J. A. Scrimger, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 35, 918 (1957).
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D. E. Shemansky, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 22, 166 (1961).
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D. E. Shemansky, Ph.D. Thesis, 1965, University of Saskatchewan.

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, L. Paffrath, Appl. Opt. 6, 1659 (1967).
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R. L. Hilliard, G. G. Shepherd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 362 (1966).
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R. L. Hilliard, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 14, 383 (1966).
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K. V. Paulson, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 44, 837 (1966).
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G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, L. L. Cogger, Appl. Opt. 4, 267 (1965).
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L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 1163 (1965).
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A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
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Y. P. Neo, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1325 (1964).

H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 41, 343 (1963).
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H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 25, 604 (1963).
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H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 41, 343 (1963).
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G. G. Shepherd, A. R. Bens, Nature 198, 470 (1963).
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E. C. Turgeon, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 9, 295 (1962).
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J. A. Nilson, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 5, 229 (1961).
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G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 38, 1560 (1960).
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G. G. Shepherd, D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 6, 328 (1955).
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D. M. Hunten, G. G. Shepherd, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 5, 57 (1954).
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G. G. Shepherd, Scientific Report No. AR–16, Contract AF19(122)–152, University of Saskatchewan.

G. G. Shepherd, Colloque sur les Methodes Nouvelles. Spectroscopie Instrumentale; J. Phys. (to be published).

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M. M. Shepherd, M.A. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan.

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W. Petrie, R. Small, Astrophys. J. 116, 433 (1951).
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Stair, A. T.

G. Culp, A. T. Stair, private communication.

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H. M. Sullivan, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 42, 937 (1964).
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G. Suryan, Phys. Rev. 80, 119 (1950).
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P. Swings, in The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, G. P. Kuiper, Ed. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1949).

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L. Vegard, E. Tønsberg, C. Kvifte, Geofys. Publikasjoner 18, 1 (1951).

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E. C. Turgeon, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 9, 295 (1962).
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W. F. J. Evans, E. J. Llewellyn, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 215, 352 (1967).
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E. J. Llewellyn, W. F. J. Evans, A. Vallance Jones, D. M. Hunten, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 48, 71 (1967).

W. F. J. Evans, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 43, 697 (1965).
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A. Vallance Jones, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 9 (5e), 289 (1964).

D. M. Hunten, A. Vallance Jones, C. D. Ellyett, E. C. McLauchlan, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 26, 67 (1964).
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A. Vallance Jones, Planetary Space Sci. 10, 117 (1963).
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A. Vallance Jones, R. L. Gattinger, Planetary Space Sci. 11, 961 (1963).
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J. F. Noxon, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 196, 157 (1962).
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A. E. Johanson, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 24 (1962).
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L. E. Montbriand, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 1401 (1962).
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L. E. Montbriand, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 1401 (1962).
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D. E. Shemansky, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 22, 166 (1961).
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D. H. McPherson, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 302 (1960).
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A. Vallance Jones, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 38, 458 (1960).
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D. M. Hunten, H. J. Koenig, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 183, 453 (1959).
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A. Vallance Jones, D. H. McPherson, J. Atmospheric Terrest Phys. 12, 166 (1958).
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A. Vallance Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 13, 45 (1958).
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I. R. Montalbetti, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 11, 43 (1957).
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A. Vallance Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 6, 336 (1955).
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L. Vegard, E. Tønsberg, C. Kvifte, Geofys. Publikasjoner 18, 1 (1951).

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P. B. Hays, J. C. G. Walker, Planetary Space Sci. 15, 1331 (1966).
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D. M. Hunten, E. G. Rawson, J. K. Walker, Can. J. Phys. 41, 258 (1963).
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D. M. Hunten, L. Wallace, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 697 (1967).
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J. Delannoy, G. Weill, Compt. Rend. 247, 806 (1958).

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Ann. Astrophys. (1)

B. Lyot, Ann. Astrophys. 7, 31 (1944).

Ann. Geophys. (1)

J. E. Blamont, A. Kastler, Ann. Geophys. 7, 73 (1951).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Astrophys. J. (3)

W. Petrie, R. Small, Astrophys. J. 116, 433 (1951).
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J. H. Meek, Astrophys. J. 120, 602 (1954).
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A. B. Meinel, Astrophys. J. 111, 555 (1950).
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Can. J. Phys. (20)

A. E. Johanson, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 24 (1962).
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A. Vallance Jones, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 38, 458 (1960).
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L. E. Montbriand, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 1401 (1962).
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H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 41, 343 (1963).
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J. A. Scrimger, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 35, 918 (1957).
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Y. P. Neo, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1325 (1964).

L. E. Montbriand, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 40, 1401 (1962).
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D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 31, 681 (1953).
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H. M. Sullivan, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 42, 937 (1964).
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W. R Bullock, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 39, 976 (1961).
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D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 38, 346 (1960).
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A. L. Broadfoot, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 52, 1212 (1964).
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I. Maartense, D. M. Hunten, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1729 (1963).
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G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 38, 1560 (1960).
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H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 41, 343 (1963).
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W. A. Gault, H. N. Rundle, Can. J. Phys. 44, 1099 (1966).
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D. M. Hunten, E. G. Rawson, J. K. Walker, Can. J. Phys. 41, 258 (1963).
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W. F. J. Evans, A. Vallance Jones, Can. J. Phys. 43, 697 (1965).
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K. V. Paulson, G. G. Shepherd, Can. J. Phys. 44, 837 (1966).
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H. P. Gush, H. L. Buijs, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1037 (1964).
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Can. J. Phys. Res. (1)

W. D. Penn, B. W. Currie, Can. J. Phys. Res. A27, 45 (1939).

Compt. Rend. (1)

J. Delannoy, G. Weill, Compt. Rend. 247, 806 (1958).

Geofys. Publikasjoner (1)

L. Vegard, E. Tønsberg, C. Kvifte, Geofys. Publikasjoner 18, 1 (1951).

J. Atmospheric Sci. (2)

D. M. Hunten, W. L. Godson, J. Atmospheric Sci. 24, 80 (1967).
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C. S. Deehr, G. J. Romick, A. E. Belon, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 362 (1966).
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J. Atmospheric Terrest Phys. (1)

A. Vallance Jones, D. H. McPherson, J. Atmospheric Terrest Phys. 12, 166 (1958).
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J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. (17)

D. M. Hunten, G. G. Shepherd, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 5, 57 (1954).
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D. M. Hunten, A. Vallance Jones, C. D. Ellyett, E. C. McLauchlan, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 26, 67 (1964).
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H. H. Zwick, G. G. Shepherd, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 25, 604 (1963).
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A. Vallance Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 13, 45 (1958).
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D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 24, 333 (1962).
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D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 295 (1960).
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H. N. Rundle, D. M. Hunten, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 205 (1960).
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A. Vallance Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 6, 336 (1955).
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G. G. Shepherd, D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 6, 328 (1955).
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I. R. Montalbetti, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 11, 43 (1957).
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D. H. McPherson, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 302 (1960).
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H. P. Gush, A. Vallance Jones, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 7, 285 (1955).
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E. A. Lytle, D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 16, 236 (1959).
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A. V. Jones, A. W. Harrison, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 13, 45 (1958).
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D. M. Hunten, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 7, 141 (1955).
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J. Geophys. Res. (2)

J. M. Malville, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 1831 (1964).
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D. M. Hunten, L. Wallace, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 697 (1967).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Phys. Radium (1)

J. Connes, H. P. Gush, J. Phys. Radium 21, 645 (1960).
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J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer (1)

W. G. Fastie, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 3, 505 (1963).
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J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. (1)

D. M. Hunten, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. 54, 177 (1960).

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B. W. Currie, H. W. Edwards, J. Terrest. Magnetism Atmospheric Elec. 39, 293 (1934).
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B. W. Currie, H. W. Edwards, J. Terrest. Magnetism Atmospheric Elec. 41, 265 (1936).
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Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège (2)

A. Vallance Jones, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 9 (5e), 289 (1964).

J. Connes, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège 9 (5e), 81 (1964).

Nature (5)

W. F. J. Evans, E. J. Llewellyn, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 215, 352 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 196, 157 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, A. R. Bens, Nature 198, 470 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, H. J. Koenig, A. Vallance Jones, Nature 183, 453 (1959).
[CrossRef]

L. Vegard, Nature 114, 1089 (1939).

Phys. Rev. (3)

F. Bloch, D. H. Garber, Phys. Rev. 76, 585 (1949).

G. Suryan, Phys. Rev. 80, 119 (1950).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Dahlstrom, D. M. Hunten, Phys. Rev. 84, 378 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Planetary Sci. (1)

A. H. Jarret, M. J. Hoey, L. Paffrath, Planetary Sci. 12, 591 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Planetary Space Sci. (11)

A. H. Jarrett, M. J. Hoey, Planetary Space Sci. 12, 1139 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. Vallance Jones, R. L. Gattinger, Planetary Space Sci. 11, 961 (1963).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Rees, A. E. Belon, G. J. Romick, Planetary Space Sci. 5, 87 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Nilson, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 5, 229 (1961).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Turgeon, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 9, 295 (1962).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Broadfoot, D. M. Hunten, Planetary Space Sci. 15, 1303 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 1163 (1965).
[CrossRef]

A. Vallance Jones, Planetary Space Sci. 10, 117 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Hilliard, G. G. Shepherd, Planetary Space Sci. 14, 383 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, J. C. G. Walker, Planetary Space Sci. 15, 1331 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rept. Progr. Phys. (1)

P. Jacquinot, Rept. Progr. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt. (1)

P. Connes, Rev. Opt. 35, 37 (1956).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

D. M. Hunten, Space Sci. Rev. 6, 493 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

E. J. Llewellyn, W. F. J. Evans, A. Vallance Jones, D. M. Hunten, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 48, 71 (1967).

Z. Phys. (1)

R. Bernard, Z. Phys. 110, 291 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961).

M. Ahmed, Ph.D. Thesis, 1966, University of Saskatchewan.

D. E. Shemansky, Ph.D. Thesis, 1965, University of Saskatchewan.

G. Culp, A. T. Stair, private communication.

P. Swings, in The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, G. P. Kuiper, Ed. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1949).

M. M. Shepherd, M.A. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan.

D. M. Hunten, Introduction to Electronics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, 1964), Chap. 16.

G. G. Shepherd, Scientific Report No. AR–16, Contract AF19(122)–152, University of Saskatchewan.

L. Mertz, preprints of papers presented at the Fifth Meeting and Conference of the ICO, Stockholm, Aug.1959. Ed. E. Inglestam.

E. J. Fjarlie, Ph.D. Thesis, 1965, University of Saskatchewan.

G. G. Shepherd, Colloque sur les Methodes Nouvelles. Spectroscopie Instrumentale; J. Phys. (to be published).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absolute brightness of emissions from the upper atmosphere. The airglow values are reduced to the zenith.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic optical design of ir photometer for balloon and rocket studies of the 1.27-μ O2 band. A—baffles, B—objective lens, C—condensing lenses for beam contraction and expansion, D—chopper, E—wideband filter, F—beam splitter, G—condensing lenses, J—narrow band filter, K—detectors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A simple birefringent filter is shown in the top diagram and the split birefringent filter is shown in the lower diagram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Rotational fine structure of the λ3914 N2+ band in sunlit auroral rays and normal aurora observed with a 22.9-cm. Schmidt spectrograph by Hunten, Koenig, and Vallance Jones. Courtesy of Nature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Twilight geometry. The observer at O looks in the zenith. Z is the unrefracted shadow height and β is the solar depression.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical lithium, sodium, and potassium distributions as determined by Sullivan and Hunten.62 Courtesy Planet and Space Science.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Brightness variation of twilight lithium at Saskatoon according to Sullivan and Hunten.62 Thermonuclear explosions are shown by vertical bars; the scale is at the right. Courtesy Canadian Journal of Physics.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Monthly or semimonthly means of sodium emission at five stations as compiled by Vallance Jones.96 Courtesy Planet and Space Science.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Day and twilight airglow variations of the 1.27-μ O2 band observed with a balloon spectrometer by Evanis, Llewellyn, and Vallance Jones.103 Courtesy Nature.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

A spectrum of weak aurora obtained with a rapid scanning spectrometer and delay-line memory unit. The spectrum is the sum of 180 ten-second scans at 10 Å resolution. The lower tracing is scaled to one-quarter of the working spectrum. Mercury lines at 3650 Å are from city lights. Courtesy Canadian Journal of Physics.

Equations (15)

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B N = [ P N R / π A ( sin i + sin θ ) α ] ,
B N = P N R / τ 2 π A n 2 ,
2 π n 2 / α ( sin i + s n θ ) 100 n 2
P N = ( α Δ f ) 1 2 D * ,
a = [ α ( sin i + sin θ ) A / R n ω ] ,
B N = ( Δ f R ) 1 2 D * τ [ α ( sin i + sin θ ) A ω n ] 1 2 .
a = 2 π n 2 A / R n ω .
B N = ( Δ f R ) 1 2 D * τ n ( 2 π A ω n ) 1 2 .
[ 2 π n 2 2 ( sin i + sin θ ) ] 1 2 10 n .
λ - λ 0 = a ( ϕ - ϕ 0 ) + b ( ϕ - ϕ 0 ) 2 + c ( ϕ - ϕ 0 ) 3 ..
Δ - Δ 0 = Δ 0 θ 4 / 8 n 2 .
Ω R = ( δ / λ ) 4 π n o n e 2 n o / ( n o - n e ) ,
N ( K ) K ( K + 1 ) exp [ - h c B K ( K + 1 ) / k T ] .
I ( K ) K exp [ - h c B K ( K + 1 ) / k T ] ,
B ( z ) = g 4 π 0 T ( x - z ) n ( x ) d x photons / sr cm 2 sec ;

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