Abstract

A modified laser probe for spectrochemical analysis is described. A high energy laser beam is focused onto a specimen to vaporize a sample from a small area, and the vapor thus formed is further excited by a spark discharge. The characteristics of emission spectra with and without auxiliary spark excitation are compared. Spectrograph illuminating systems for qualitative and quantitative analysis were investigated. Some difficulties were encountered with the laser probe, and modifications were made to the instrument to alleviate some of these problems. Some typical analytical applications are discussed.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. H. Maiman, Brit. Commun. Elect. 7, 674 (1960).
  3. F. Brech, Appl. Spectry. 16, 59 (1962).
  4. J. Debras-Guédon, N. Liodec, Compt. Rend. 257, 3336 (1963).
  5. A. V. Karyakin, M. V. Akhmanova, V. A. Kaigorodov, Zh. Analit. Khim. 20, 145 (1965).
  6. J. A. Maxwell, Can. Mineralogist 7, 727 (1963).
  7. R. C. Rosan, F. Brech, D. Glick, Federation Proc. 24, S-126 (1965).
  8. E. F. Runge, R. W. Minck, F. R. Bryan, Spectrochim. Acta 20, 733 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, M. Margoshes, Appl. Opt. 6, 87 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. ASTM Tentative Recommended Practice for Designation of Shapes and Sizes of Graphite Electrodes: E130-63T. Methods for Emission Spectrochemical Analysis, 4th Ed. (ASTM, Philadelphia, 1964), p. 110.

1967 (1)

1965 (2)

A. V. Karyakin, M. V. Akhmanova, V. A. Kaigorodov, Zh. Analit. Khim. 20, 145 (1965).

R. C. Rosan, F. Brech, D. Glick, Federation Proc. 24, S-126 (1965).

1964 (1)

E. F. Runge, R. W. Minck, F. R. Bryan, Spectrochim. Acta 20, 733 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

J. A. Maxwell, Can. Mineralogist 7, 727 (1963).

J. Debras-Guédon, N. Liodec, Compt. Rend. 257, 3336 (1963).

1962 (1)

F. Brech, Appl. Spectry. 16, 59 (1962).

1960 (1)

T. H. Maiman, Brit. Commun. Elect. 7, 674 (1960).

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Akhmanova, M. V.

A. V. Karyakin, M. V. Akhmanova, V. A. Kaigorodov, Zh. Analit. Khim. 20, 145 (1965).

Brech, F.

R. C. Rosan, F. Brech, D. Glick, Federation Proc. 24, S-126 (1965).

F. Brech, Appl. Spectry. 16, 59 (1962).

Bryan, F. R.

E. F. Runge, R. W. Minck, F. R. Bryan, Spectrochim. Acta 20, 733 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Debras-Guédon, J.

J. Debras-Guédon, N. Liodec, Compt. Rend. 257, 3336 (1963).

Glick, D.

R. C. Rosan, F. Brech, D. Glick, Federation Proc. 24, S-126 (1965).

Kaigorodov, V. A.

A. V. Karyakin, M. V. Akhmanova, V. A. Kaigorodov, Zh. Analit. Khim. 20, 145 (1965).

Karyakin, A. V.

A. V. Karyakin, M. V. Akhmanova, V. A. Kaigorodov, Zh. Analit. Khim. 20, 145 (1965).

Liodec, N.

J. Debras-Guédon, N. Liodec, Compt. Rend. 257, 3336 (1963).

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, Brit. Commun. Elect. 7, 674 (1960).

Margoshes, M.

Maxwell, J. A.

J. A. Maxwell, Can. Mineralogist 7, 727 (1963).

Minck, R. W.

E. F. Runge, R. W. Minck, F. R. Bryan, Spectrochim. Acta 20, 733 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Rasberry, S. D.

Rosan, R. C.

R. C. Rosan, F. Brech, D. Glick, Federation Proc. 24, S-126 (1965).

Runge, E. F.

E. F. Runge, R. W. Minck, F. R. Bryan, Spectrochim. Acta 20, 733 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Scribner, B. F.

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectry. (1)

F. Brech, Appl. Spectry. 16, 59 (1962).

Brit. Commun. Elect. (1)

T. H. Maiman, Brit. Commun. Elect. 7, 674 (1960).

Can. Mineralogist (1)

J. A. Maxwell, Can. Mineralogist 7, 727 (1963).

Compt. Rend. (1)

J. Debras-Guédon, N. Liodec, Compt. Rend. 257, 3336 (1963).

Federation Proc. (1)

R. C. Rosan, F. Brech, D. Glick, Federation Proc. 24, S-126 (1965).

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

E. F. Runge, R. W. Minck, F. R. Bryan, Spectrochim. Acta 20, 733 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Analit. Khim. (1)

A. V. Karyakin, M. V. Akhmanova, V. A. Kaigorodov, Zh. Analit. Khim. 20, 145 (1965).

Other (1)

ASTM Tentative Recommended Practice for Designation of Shapes and Sizes of Graphite Electrodes: E130-63T. Methods for Emission Spectrochemical Analysis, 4th Ed. (ASTM, Philadelphia, 1964), p. 110.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of laser probe system. The control and spark power supply sections are housed in a separate console; the remainder of the system is mounted on the optical bench of a spectrograph. The subcomponents in the laser section are (A) rotating prism Q-switch, (B) pulsed high voltage discharge trigger, (C) xenon-filled quartz flashlamp, (D) ruby rod, (E) cylindrical reflector, (F) temperature sensor, heater, and blower, and (G) 55% front reflector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spark excitation of laser vaporized material.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fracture in top lenspiece of microscope objective.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of shape and intensity of three spectral lines with and without spark excitation of the vapor. The intensity scale is the same in all six cases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser-plus-spark spectra. The wavelength range is 2400–2900 Å; wavelength increases toward the left. The rows of spectra, beginning at the top, are (A) Fe reference, (B) Au reference (note strong Au line at 2427.9 Å), (C) lead plating, (D) lead, (E) semiconducting disk (note the group of strong Si lines near 2516 Å, also one line at 2881 Å), and (F) overcoating. For these qualitative analyses the spark source was focused on the slit of the spectrograph. Persistent carbon lines at 2478.5 Å and 2836.7 Å are observed in all the spectra and are caused by the graphite electrodes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microdiode broken open for analysis. Arrow shows semiconducting disk, approximately 0.3 mm in diam.

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