Abstract

In this paper, we report the performance of a bismuth-doped fiber amplifier at 1687 nm. This wavelength region is particularly interesting for laser-based spectroscopy and trace gas detection. The active bismuth-doped fiber is pumped at 1550 nm. With less than 10 mW of the seed power, more than 100 mW is obtained at the amplifier’s output. We also investigate the signal at the output when a wavelength-modulated seed source is used, and present wavelength modulation spectroscopy of methane transition near 1687 nm. A significant baseline is observed in the spectra recorded when the fiber amplifier is used. The origin of this unwanted background signal is discussed and methods for its suppression are demonstrated.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (10)

J. Chen, X. Zhao, Z. Yao, T. Li, Q. Li, S. Xie, J. Liu, and Z. Zheng, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of methane based on a free-running Erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 27, 11406–11412 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. J. Zhang, C. C. Teng, T. G. van Kessel, L. Klein, R. Muralidhar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, “Field deployment of a portable optical spectrometer for methane fugitive emissions monitoring on oil and gas well pads,” Sensors 19, 2707 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Tian, Y. Cao, J. Chen, K. Liu, G. Wang, T. Tan, J. Mei, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Dual-gas sensor of CH4/C2H6 based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy coupled to a home-made compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sensors 19, 820 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Jiang, Z. Wang, X. Han, C. Zhang, G. Ma, C. Li, and Y. Luo, “Multi-gas detection in power transformer oil based on tunable diode laser absorption spectrum,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 26, 153–161 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, Y. Jung, S. Alam, D. J. Richardson, R. Sidharthan, D. Ho, S. Yoo, and J. M. O. Daniel, “Ultra-short wavelength operation of thulium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Express 27, 36699–36707 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Nikodem, A. Khegai, and S. V. Firstov, “Single-frequency bismuth-doped fiber power amplifier at 1651 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16, 115102 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Alyshev, A. Kharakhordin, E. Firstova, A. Khegai, M. Melkumov, V. Khopin, A. Lobanov, A. Guryanov, and S. Firstov, “Photostability of laser-active centers in bismuth-doped GeO2-SiO2 glass fibers under pumping at 1550  nm,” Opt. Express 27, 31542–31552 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. K. Thipparapu, Y. Wang, A. A. Umnikov, P. Barua, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “40  dB gain all fiber bismuth-doped amplifier operating in the O-band,” Opt. Lett. 44, 2248–2251 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. K. Thipparapu, Y. Wang, S. Wang, A. A. Umnikov, P. Barua, and J. K. Sahu, “Bi-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9, 2446–2465 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Milde, M. Hoppe, H. Tatenguem, C. Assmann, W. Schade, and J. Sacher, “Comparison of the spectral excitation behavior of methane according to InP, GaSb, IC, and QC lasers as excitation source by sensor applications,” Appl. Opt. 58, C84–C91 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

G. Cheng, Y. Cao, K. Liu, G. Zhu, G. Wang, and X. Gao, “Photoacoustic measurement of ethane with near-infrared DFB diode laser,” J. Spectrosc. 2018, 9765806 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “HCN ppt-level detection based on a QEPAS sensor with amplified laser and a miniaturized 3D-printed photoacoustic detection channel,” Opt. Express 26, 9666–9675 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

R. Bauer, T. Legg, D. Mitchell, G. M. H. Flockhart, G. Stewart, W. Johnstone, and M. Lengden, “Miniaturized photoacoustic trace gas sensing using a Raman fiber amplifier,” J. Light. Technol. 33, 3773–3780 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, L. Dong, X. Liu, H. Zheng, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, and S. Jia, “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor for simultaneous trace gas detection of NH3 and H2S,” Sensors 15, 26743–26755 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

G. Hancock, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, “Laser-based method and sample handling protocol for measuring breath acetone,” Anal. Chem. 86, 5838–5843 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. R. Nehrir, J. W. Hair, J. H. Crawford, I. Leifer, and T. Shuman, “Performance evaluation of a 1.6  µm methane DIAL system from ground, aircraft and UAV platforms,” Opt. Express 21, 30415–30432 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Fritsche, O. Lux, C. Schuett, S. Heinemann, W. Gries, and H. J. Eichler, “Efficient Er:YAG lasers at 1645.55  nm, resonantly pumped with narrow bandwidth diode laser modules at 1532  nm, for methane detection,” Proc. SPIE 8599, 83–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, M. C. Laderer, B. D. Green, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff and miniature chemical vapor detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 639–646 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianov, M. A. Mel’kumov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Gur’yanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bismuth-doped fibre amplifier for the range 1300–1340  nm,” Quantum Electron. 39, 1099–1101 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B Atom. Spectros. 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5803–5815 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Ikuta, N. Yoshikane, N. Vasa, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, M. Uchiumi, Y. Tsumura, J. Nakagawa, and N. Kawada, “Differential absorption lidar at 1.67  µm for remote sensing of methane leakage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 110–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Ikuta, N. Yoshikane, N. Vasa, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, M. Uchiumi, Y. Tsumura, J. Nakagawa, and N. Kawada, “Differential absorption lidar at 1.67 µm for remote sensing of methane leakage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 110–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.

Alam, S. U.

Allen, M.

R. T. Wainner, M. B. Frish, D. Green, M. C. Laderer, M. Allen, and J. Morency, “High altitude aerial natural gas leak detection system,” in Final report PSI-1454/TR-2211 (Physical Science Inc., 2006).

Allen, M. G.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, M. C. Laderer, B. D. Green, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff and miniature chemical vapor detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 639–646 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, J. Stafford-Evans, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, S. Chancey, J. Rutherford, G. Midgley, and P. Wehnert, “Standoff sensing of natural gas leaks: evolution of the remote methane leak detector (RMLD),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications, Systems and Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JThF3.

Alyshev, S.

Alyshev, S. V.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28939 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, and M.-C. Amann, “Sensitivity limits for near-infrared gas sensing with suspended-core PCFs directly coupled with VCSELs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2010, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThB7.

Assmann, C.

Axner, O.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B Atom. Spectros. 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5803–5815 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barua, P.

Bauer, R.

R. Bauer, T. Legg, D. Mitchell, G. M. H. Flockhart, G. Stewart, W. Johnstone, and M. Lengden, “Miniaturized photoacoustic trace gas sensing using a Raman fiber amplifier,” J. Light. Technol. 33, 3773–3780 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blake, G. A.

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bufetov, I. A.

E. M. Dianov, M. A. Mel’kumov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Gur’yanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bismuth-doped fibre amplifier for the range 1300–1340  nm,” Quantum Electron. 39, 1099–1101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

X. Tian, Y. Cao, J. Chen, K. Liu, G. Wang, T. Tan, J. Mei, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Dual-gas sensor of CH4/C2H6 based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy coupled to a home-made compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sensors 19, 820 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Cheng, Y. Cao, K. Liu, G. Zhu, G. Wang, and X. Gao, “Photoacoustic measurement of ethane with near-infrared DFB diode laser,” J. Spectrosc. 2018, 9765806 (2018).
[Crossref]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chancey, S.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, J. Stafford-Evans, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, S. Chancey, J. Rutherford, G. Midgley, and P. Wehnert, “Standoff sensing of natural gas leaks: evolution of the remote methane leak detector (RMLD),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications, Systems and Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JThF3.

Chen, J.

X. Tian, Y. Cao, J. Chen, K. Liu, G. Wang, T. Tan, J. Mei, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Dual-gas sensor of CH4/C2H6 based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy coupled to a home-made compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sensors 19, 820 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, X. Zhao, Z. Yao, T. Li, Q. Li, S. Xie, J. Liu, and Z. Zheng, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of methane based on a free-running Erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 27, 11406–11412 (2019).
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J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, and M.-C. Amann, “Sensitivity limits for near-infrared gas sensing with suspended-core PCFs directly coupled with VCSELs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2010, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThB7.

Chen, J. S. Y.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, and M.-C. Amann, “Sensitivity limits for near-infrared gas sensing with suspended-core PCFs directly coupled with VCSELs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2010, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThB7.

Chen, S.

Chen, W.

X. Tian, Y. Cao, J. Chen, K. Liu, G. Wang, T. Tan, J. Mei, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Dual-gas sensor of CH4/C2H6 based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy coupled to a home-made compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sensors 19, 820 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, G.

G. Cheng, Y. Cao, K. Liu, G. Zhu, G. Wang, and X. Gao, “Photoacoustic measurement of ethane with near-infrared DFB diode laser,” J. Spectrosc. 2018, 9765806 (2018).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Conde, O. M.

Cossel, K. C.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Crawford, J. H.

Cubillas, A. M.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Daniel, J. M. O.

Delavaux, J.-M.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28939 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianov, M. A. Mel’kumov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Gur’yanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bismuth-doped fibre amplifier for the range 1300–1340  nm,” Quantum Electron. 39, 1099–1101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

H. Wu, L. Dong, X. Liu, H. Zheng, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, and S. Jia, “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor for simultaneous trace gas detection of NH3 and H2S,” Sensors 15, 26743–26755 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eichler, H. J.

H. Fritsche, O. Lux, C. Schuett, S. Heinemann, W. Gries, and H. J. Eichler, “Efficient Er:YAG lasers at 1645.55  nm, resonantly pumped with narrow bandwidth diode laser modules at 1532  nm, for methane detection,” Proc. SPIE 8599, 83–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Euser, T. G.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, and M.-C. Amann, “Sensitivity limits for near-infrared gas sensing with suspended-core PCFs directly coupled with VCSELs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2010, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThB7.

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Finneran, I. A.

Firstov, S.

Firstov, S. V.

M. Nikodem, A. Khegai, and S. V. Firstov, “Single-frequency bismuth-doped fiber power amplifier at 1651 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16, 115102 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28939 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianov, M. A. Mel’kumov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Gur’yanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bismuth-doped fibre amplifier for the range 1300–1340  nm,” Quantum Electron. 39, 1099–1101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Firstova, E.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Flockhart, G. M. H.

R. Bauer, T. Legg, D. Mitchell, G. M. H. Flockhart, G. Stewart, W. Johnstone, and M. Lengden, “Miniaturized photoacoustic trace gas sensing using a Raman fiber amplifier,” J. Light. Technol. 33, 3773–3780 (2015).
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Frish, M. B.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, M. C. Laderer, B. D. Green, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff and miniature chemical vapor detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 639–646 (2010).
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M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, J. Stafford-Evans, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, S. Chancey, J. Rutherford, G. Midgley, and P. Wehnert, “Standoff sensing of natural gas leaks: evolution of the remote methane leak detector (RMLD),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications, Systems and Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JThF3.

R. T. Wainner, M. B. Frish, D. Green, M. C. Laderer, M. Allen, and J. Morency, “High altitude aerial natural gas leak detection system,” in Final report PSI-1454/TR-2211 (Physical Science Inc., 2006).

Fritsche, H.

H. Fritsche, O. Lux, C. Schuett, S. Heinemann, W. Gries, and H. J. Eichler, “Efficient Er:YAG lasers at 1645.55  nm, resonantly pumped with narrow bandwidth diode laser modules at 1532  nm, for methane detection,” Proc. SPIE 8599, 83–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

X. Tian, Y. Cao, J. Chen, K. Liu, G. Wang, T. Tan, J. Mei, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Dual-gas sensor of CH4/C2H6 based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy coupled to a home-made compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sensors 19, 820 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Cheng, Y. Cao, K. Liu, G. Zhu, G. Wang, and X. Gao, “Photoacoustic measurement of ethane with near-infrared DFB diode laser,” J. Spectrosc. 2018, 9765806 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Green, B. D.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, M. C. Laderer, B. D. Green, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff and miniature chemical vapor detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 639–646 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, J. Stafford-Evans, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, S. Chancey, J. Rutherford, G. Midgley, and P. Wehnert, “Standoff sensing of natural gas leaks: evolution of the remote methane leak detector (RMLD),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications, Systems and Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JThF3.

Green, D.

R. T. Wainner, M. B. Frish, D. Green, M. C. Laderer, M. Allen, and J. Morency, “High altitude aerial natural gas leak detection system,” in Final report PSI-1454/TR-2211 (Physical Science Inc., 2006).

Green, W. M. J.

E. J. Zhang, C. C. Teng, T. G. van Kessel, L. Klein, R. Muralidhar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, “Field deployment of a portable optical spectrometer for methane fugitive emissions monitoring on oil and gas well pads,” Sensors 19, 2707 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gries, W.

H. Fritsche, O. Lux, C. Schuett, S. Heinemann, W. Gries, and H. J. Eichler, “Efficient Er:YAG lasers at 1645.55  nm, resonantly pumped with narrow bandwidth diode laser modules at 1532  nm, for methane detection,” Proc. SPIE 8599, 83–89 (2013).
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Gur’yanov, A. N.

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P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry—an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B Atom. Spectros. 56, 1277–1354 (2001).
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J. Jiang, Z. Wang, X. Han, C. Zhang, G. Ma, C. Li, and Y. Luo, “Multi-gas detection in power transformer oil based on tunable diode laser absorption spectrum,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 26, 153–161 (2019).
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H. Fritsche, O. Lux, C. Schuett, S. Heinemann, W. Gries, and H. J. Eichler, “Efficient Er:YAG lasers at 1645.55  nm, resonantly pumped with narrow bandwidth diode laser modules at 1532  nm, for methane detection,” Proc. SPIE 8599, 83–89 (2013).
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J. Jiang, Z. Wang, X. Han, C. Zhang, G. Ma, C. Li, and Y. Luo, “Multi-gas detection in power transformer oil based on tunable diode laser absorption spectrum,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 26, 153–161 (2019).
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H. Wu, L. Dong, X. Liu, H. Zheng, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, and S. Jia, “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor for simultaneous trace gas detection of NH3 and H2S,” Sensors 15, 26743–26755 (2015).
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K. Ikuta, N. Yoshikane, N. Vasa, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, M. Uchiumi, Y. Tsumura, J. Nakagawa, and N. Kawada, “Differential absorption lidar at 1.67 µm for remote sensing of methane leakage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 110–114 (1999).
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E. M. Dianov, M. A. Mel’kumov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Gur’yanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bismuth-doped fibre amplifier for the range 1300–1340  nm,” Quantum Electron. 39, 1099–1101 (2009).
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Melkumov, M. A.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28939 (2016).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Mitchell, D.

R. Bauer, T. Legg, D. Mitchell, G. M. H. Flockhart, G. Stewart, W. Johnstone, and M. Lengden, “Miniaturized photoacoustic trace gas sensing using a Raman fiber amplifier,” J. Light. Technol. 33, 3773–3780 (2015).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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R. T. Wainner, M. B. Frish, D. Green, M. C. Laderer, M. Allen, and J. Morency, “High altitude aerial natural gas leak detection system,” in Final report PSI-1454/TR-2211 (Physical Science Inc., 2006).

Muralidhar, R.

E. J. Zhang, C. C. Teng, T. G. van Kessel, L. Klein, R. Muralidhar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, “Field deployment of a portable optical spectrometer for methane fugitive emissions monitoring on oil and gas well pads,” Sensors 19, 2707 (2019).
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K. Ikuta, N. Yoshikane, N. Vasa, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, M. Uchiumi, Y. Tsumura, J. Nakagawa, and N. Kawada, “Differential absorption lidar at 1.67 µm for remote sensing of methane leakage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 110–114 (1999).
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K. Ikuta, N. Yoshikane, N. Vasa, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, M. Uchiumi, Y. Tsumura, J. Nakagawa, and N. Kawada, “Differential absorption lidar at 1.67  µm for remote sensing of methane leakage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 110–114 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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K. Ikuta, N. Yoshikane, N. Vasa, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, M. Uchiumi, Y. Tsumura, J. Nakagawa, and N. Kawada, “Differential absorption lidar at 1.67 µm for remote sensing of methane leakage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 110–114 (1999).
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X. Tian, Y. Cao, J. Chen, K. Liu, G. Wang, T. Tan, J. Mei, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Dual-gas sensor of CH4/C2H6 based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy coupled to a home-made compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sensors 19, 820 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Cheng, Y. Cao, K. Liu, G. Zhu, G. Wang, and X. Gao, “Photoacoustic measurement of ethane with near-infrared DFB diode laser,” J. Spectrosc. 2018, 9765806 (2018).
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K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

J. Jiang, Z. Wang, X. Han, C. Zhang, G. Ma, C. Li, and Y. Luo, “Multi-gas detection in power transformer oil based on tunable diode laser absorption spectrum,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 26, 153–161 (2019).
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Wehnert, P.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, J. Stafford-Evans, B. D. Green, M. G. Allen, S. Chancey, J. Rutherford, G. Midgley, and P. Wehnert, “Standoff sensing of natural gas leaks: evolution of the remote methane leak detector (RMLD),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications, Systems and Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JThF3.

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H. Wu, L. Dong, X. Liu, H. Zheng, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, and S. Jia, “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor for simultaneous trace gas detection of NH3 and H2S,” Sensors 15, 26743–26755 (2015).
[Crossref]

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E. J. Zhang, C. C. Teng, T. G. van Kessel, L. Klein, R. Muralidhar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, “Field deployment of a portable optical spectrometer for methane fugitive emissions monitoring on oil and gas well pads,” Sensors 19, 2707 (2019).
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Xie, S.

Yao, Z.

Ye, J.

Yeniay, A.

Yin, W.

H. Wu, L. Dong, X. Liu, H. Zheng, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, and S. Jia, “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor for simultaneous trace gas detection of NH3 and H2S,” Sensors 15, 26743–26755 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

H. Wu, L. Dong, X. Liu, H. Zheng, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, and S. Jia, “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor for simultaneous trace gas detection of NH3 and H2S,” Sensors 15, 26743–26755 (2015).
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J. Jiang, Z. Wang, X. Han, C. Zhang, G. Ma, C. Li, and Y. Luo, “Multi-gas detection in power transformer oil based on tunable diode laser absorption spectrum,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 26, 153–161 (2019).
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E. J. Zhang, C. C. Teng, T. G. van Kessel, L. Klein, R. Muralidhar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, “Field deployment of a portable optical spectrometer for methane fugitive emissions monitoring on oil and gas well pads,” Sensors 19, 2707 (2019).
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H. Wu, L. Dong, X. Liu, H. Zheng, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, and S. Jia, “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor for simultaneous trace gas detection of NH3 and H2S,” Sensors 15, 26743–26755 (2015).
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J. Xia, F. Zhu, S. Zhang, A. Kolomenskii, and H. Schuessler, “A ppb level sensitive sensor for atmospheric methane detection,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 86, 194–201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
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Zheng, H.

H. Wu, L. Dong, X. Liu, H. Zheng, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, and S. Jia, “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor for simultaneous trace gas detection of NH3 and H2S,” Sensors 15, 26743–26755 (2015).
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J. Xia, F. Zhu, S. Zhang, A. Kolomenskii, and H. Schuessler, “A ppb level sensitive sensor for atmospheric methane detection,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 86, 194–201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

G. Cheng, Y. Cao, K. Liu, G. Zhu, G. Wang, and X. Gao, “Photoacoustic measurement of ethane with near-infrared DFB diode laser,” J. Spectrosc. 2018, 9765806 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zondlo, M. A.

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K. Ikuta, N. Yoshikane, N. Vasa, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, M. Uchiumi, Y. Tsumura, J. Nakagawa, and N. Kawada, “Differential absorption lidar at 1.67  µm for remote sensing of methane leakage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 110–114 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Ikuta, N. Yoshikane, N. Vasa, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, M. Uchiumi, Y. Tsumura, J. Nakagawa, and N. Kawada, “Differential absorption lidar at 1.67 µm for remote sensing of methane leakage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 110–114 (1999).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup (ISO, optical isolator; CIR, optical circulator; LD/TC, laser driver with temperature controller).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Output power versus pump power measured for the seed laser power of 7.67 mW; (b) output power versus input (seed laser) power for different pump powers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical spectra near 1550 nm for different pump powers. The back-reflected pump signal is visible near 1549.95 nm. For higher pump powers a Stokes wave appears, frequency-shifted by $\sim{9}.{13}\;{\rm GHz}$ (both wavelengths are indicated with dashed lines).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Output power versus seed laser current for the laser only and laser amplified by BDF (pumped at 22 dBm). It is shown schematically that due to nonlinearities of its transfer function, the fiber amplifier will introduce distortions to the output power modulation. (b) Modulated signals for low and high seed laser bias current, when BDFA is pumped at 22 dBm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparison between ${2}f\;{\rm WMS}$ spectra measured with seed laser only (no amplifier) and with BDFA at 20 and 27 dBm pump power. Also shown is a spectrum simulated using HITRAN database [36]. For viewing purposes, the measured spectra are vertically shifted by $ - {15}$ and $ - {30}\;{\rm a}.{\rm u}$ . (dashed lines show “zero” after the shift).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Second-harmonic signals obtained with the seed laser only and with the amplifier pumped at 27 dBm after subtraction of the baseline.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Second-harmonic signals obtained with BDFA pumped at 28 dBm for two different lock-in amplifier phase settings. The proper choice of the demodulation phase results in baseline-free ${2}f\;{\rm WMS}$ spectrum at the price of reduced signal amplitude.

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